International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism Int J Endocrinol Metab http://www.endometabol.com 1726-913X 1726-9148 10.5812/ijem en jalali 2017 6 29 gregorian 2017 6 29 10 3
en 10.5812/ijem.6836 A Long Way Is Ahead of Prediction of Menopause! A Long Way Is Ahead of Prediction of Menopause! editorial editorial Menopause;Fertility Menopause;Fertility 521 522 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6836 Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani Reswovwkti~wtm~ugrooloo}osw{oerskigoouw~,noswursiroui|u}emgorsu~eow~i~elwokeooes.ojox{u9s}}mwv{ University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-2122432500, ramezani@endocrine.ac.ir; Reswovwkti~wtm~ugrooloo}osw{oerskigoouw~,noswursiroui|u}emgorsu~eow~i~elwokeooes.ojox{u9s}}mwv{ University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-2122432500, ramezani@endocrine.ac.ir Reswovwkti~wtm~ugrooloo}osw{oerskigoouw~,noswursiroui|u}emgorsu~eow~i~elwokeooes.ojox{u9s}}mwv{ University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-2122432500, ramezani@endocrine.ac.ir; Reswovwkti~wtm~ugrooloo}osw{oerskigoouw~,noswursiroui|u}emgorsu~eow~i~elwokeooes.ojox{u9s}}mwv{ University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-2122432500, ramezani@endocrine.ac.ir
en 10.5812/ijem.4236 Urinary Total Protein as the Predictor of Albuminuria in Diabetic Patients Urinary Total Protein as the Predictor of Albuminuria in Diabetic Patients research-article research-article Background

In order to detect nephropathy, measurement of total (24 hrs) urinary albumin or albumin/creatinin ratio in random urine samples is being recommended. But methods of albumin measurement are not available in all laboratories and also cost about 6 times more than that of urinary total protein measurement.

Objectives

This Study was performed to determine appropriate cut off point in 24 hours urine total protein to diagnose micro- and macroalbuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Patients and Methods

In this study, 204 patients with diabetes mellitus type I and II were selected. In collected 24 hours urine from patients, protein and albumin were measured by using Pyrogallol and Immunoturbidimetry methods, respectively.

Results

Normoalbuminuri (albumin < 30 mg/24 hrs urine), microalbuminuri (albumin = 30-300 mg/24 hrs urine), and macroalbuminuri (albumin > 300 mg/24 hrs urine) were detected in 130, 51, and 23 patients, respectively. In 24 hrs urine collections, amounts of protein and albumin were compared to calculate cut off point of exerted protein for nephropathy diagnosis. cut off point of 73 mg/day for urinary total protein had appropriate sensitivity (94.5 %, CI = 91.4 % -97.6 %) and specificity (77.9 %, CI = 72.8 % -82.9 %) for microalbuminuria, while cut off point of 514 mg/day (sensitivity 95.7 %; specificity 98.9 %) was detected for diagnosis macroalbuminuria. Urine protein exertion of 150 mg/day that is currently considered as a normal value in most laboratory kits had a sensitivity of 73.1 % by which 30 % of microalbuminuric cases remained undiagnosed.

Conclusions

Urinary total protein cut-off points of 73 mg/day and 514 mg/day were diagnostic for micro- and macroalbuminuria, respectively.

Background

In order to detect nephropathy, measurement of total (24 hrs) urinary albumin or albumin/creatinin ratio in random urine samples is being recommended. But methods of albumin measurement are not available in all laboratories and also cost about 6 times more than that of urinary total protein measurement.

Objectives

This Study was performed to determine appropriate cut off point in 24 hours urine total protein to diagnose micro- and macroalbuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Patients and Methods

In this study, 204 patients with diabetes mellitus type I and II were selected. In collected 24 hours urine from patients, protein and albumin were measured by using Pyrogallol and Immunoturbidimetry methods, respectively.

Results

Normoalbuminuri (albumin < 30 mg/24 hrs urine), microalbuminuri (albumin = 30-300 mg/24 hrs urine), and macroalbuminuri (albumin > 300 mg/24 hrs urine) were detected in 130, 51, and 23 patients, respectively. In 24 hrs urine collections, amounts of protein and albumin were compared to calculate cut off point of exerted protein for nephropathy diagnosis. cut off point of 73 mg/day for urinary total protein had appropriate sensitivity (94.5 %, CI = 91.4 % -97.6 %) and specificity (77.9 %, CI = 72.8 % -82.9 %) for microalbuminuria, while cut off point of 514 mg/day (sensitivity 95.7 %; specificity 98.9 %) was detected for diagnosis macroalbuminuria. Urine protein exertion of 150 mg/day that is currently considered as a normal value in most laboratory kits had a sensitivity of 73.1 % by which 30 % of microalbuminuric cases remained undiagnosed.

Conclusions

Urinary total protein cut-off points of 73 mg/day and 514 mg/day were diagnostic for micro- and macroalbuminuria, respectively.

Urinary Albumin;Urinary Protein;Diabetic Nephropathy Urinary Albumin;Urinary Protein;Diabetic Nephropathy 523 526 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4236 Sima Hashemipour Sima Hashemipour Ooanom{kneisuosgoemmsknacmowu{|a}mzwi~v}nievsk}iofdmweisel Sg{eosg{ Center, IR Iran +98-2813360084, aziaee1963@yahoo.com Ooanom{kneisuosgoemmsknacmowu{|a}mzwi~v}nievsk}iofdmweisel Sg{eosg{ Center, IR Iran +98-2813360084, aziaee1963@yahoo.com Maliheh Charkhchian Maliheh Charkhchian Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Amir Javadi Amir Javadi Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Ahmad Afaghi Ahmad Afaghi Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Ali Akbar Akbar Hajiaghamohamadi Ali Akbar Akbar Hajiaghamohamadi Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Ali Bastani Ali Bastani Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Fateme Hajmanoochehri Fateme Hajmanoochehri Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Amir Ziaee Amir Ziaee Ooanom{kneisuosgoemmsknacmowu{|a}mzwi~v}nievsk}iofdmweisel Sg{eosg{ Center, IR Iran +98-2813360084, aziaee1963@yahoo.com; Ooanom{kneisuosgoemmsknacmowu{|a}mzwi~v}nievsk}iofdmweisel Sg{eosg{ Center, IR Iran +98-2813360084, aziaee1963@yahoo.com Ooanom{kneisuosgoemmsknacmowu{|a}mzwi~v}nievsk}iofdmweisel Sg{eosg{ Center, IR Iran +98-2813360084, aziaee1963@yahoo.com; Ooanom{kneisuosgoemmsknacmowu{|a}mzwi~v}nievsk}iofdmweisel Sg{eosg{ Center, IR Iran +98-2813360084, aziaee1963@yahoo.com
en 10.5812/ijem.3309 Physical Activity as a Strategy to Reduce the Risk of Osteoporosis and Fragility Fractures Physical Activity as a Strategy to Reduce the Risk of Osteoporosis and Fragility Fractures review-article review-article ABSTRACT

Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for the skeleton. Mechanical load has then been shown to be one of the best stimuli to enhance not only bone mass, but also structural skeletal adaptations, as both contributing to bone strength. Exercise prescription also includes a window of opportunity to improve bone strength in the late pre- and early peri-pubertal period. There is some evidence supporting the notion that skeletal gains obtained by mechanical load during growth are maintained at advanced age despite a reduction of physical activity in adulthood. The fact that former male athletes have a lower fracture risk than expected in their later years does not oppose the view that physical activity during growth and adolescence is important and it should be supported as one feasible strategy to reduce the future incidence of fragility fractures.

ABSTRACT

Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for the skeleton. Mechanical load has then been shown to be one of the best stimuli to enhance not only bone mass, but also structural skeletal adaptations, as both contributing to bone strength. Exercise prescription also includes a window of opportunity to improve bone strength in the late pre- and early peri-pubertal period. There is some evidence supporting the notion that skeletal gains obtained by mechanical load during growth are maintained at advanced age despite a reduction of physical activity in adulthood. The fact that former male athletes have a lower fracture risk than expected in their later years does not oppose the view that physical activity during growth and adolescence is important and it should be supported as one feasible strategy to reduce the future incidence of fragility fractures.

Osteoporosis;Physical Activity;Athletes Osteoporosis;Physical Activity;Athletes 527 536 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=3309 Magnus Karl Karlsson Magnus Karl Karlsson Gmyo{wmmnunofmolmo}oa~ _s}eosososow _wwmorcmd}o{|,soe~eruom~urot{lio{si|aoimoes}nmwovs}~y~eswmvy=0ve}a~}omnwwofeorthopaedics, Skane University Hospital, Sweden +46-40331000, magnus. karlsson@med.lu.se; Gmyo{wmmnunofmolmo}oa~ _s}eosososow _wwmorcmd}o{|,soe~eruom~urot{lio{si|aoimoes}nmwovs}~y~eswmvy=0ve}a~}omnwwofeorthopaedics, Skane University Hospital, Sweden +46-40331000, magnus. karlsson@med.lu.se Gmyo{wmmnunofmolmo}oa~ _s}eosososow _wwmorcmd}o{|,soe~eruom~urot{lio{si|aoimoes}nmwovs}~y~eswmvy=0ve}a~}omnwwofeorthopaedics, Skane University Hospital, Sweden +46-40331000, magnus. karlsson@med.lu.se; Gmyo{wmmnunofmolmo}oa~ _s}eosososow _wwmorcmd}o{|,soe~eruom~urot{lio{si|aoimoes}nmwovs}~y~eswmvy=0ve}a~}omnwwofeorthopaedics, Skane University Hospital, Sweden +46-40331000, magnus. karlsson@med.lu.se Bjorn Erik Rosengren Bjorn Erik Rosengren Gmyo{wmmnunofmolmo}oa~ _s}eosososow _wwmorcmd}o{|,soe~eruom~urot{lio{si|aoimoes}nmwovs}~y~eswmvy=0ve}a~}omnwwofeorthopaedics, Skane University Hospital, Sweden +46-40331000, magnus. karlsson@med.lu.se Gmyo{wmmnunofmolmo}oa~ _s}eosososow _wwmorcmd}o{|,soe~eruom~urot{lio{si|aoimoes}nmwovs}~y~eswmvy=0ve}a~}omnwwofeorthopaedics, Skane University Hospital, Sweden +46-40331000, magnus. karlsson@med.lu.se
en 10.5812/ijem.3932 Health Locus of Control in Patients With Graves-Basedow Disease and Hashimoto Disease and Their Acceptance of Illness Health Locus of Control in Patients With Graves-Basedow Disease and Hashimoto Disease and Their Acceptance of Illness research-article research-article Conclusions

Beliefs in health locus of control and type of illness in female patient group are predictors of illness acceptance (P = 0,0009).

Patients and Methods

Three methods were applied: Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale by K.A. Wallston, B.S. Wallston and R. DeVellis; the Acceptance of Illness Scale by B.J. Felton, T.A. Revenson, and G.A. Hinrichsena; and a personal questionnaire. Two groups were subject to the research: 68 patients with Graves-Basedow disease and 54 patients with Hashimoto disease.

Results

Patients with Graves-Basedow disease, women above all, have their health locus of control in other persons (P = 0,001) and are less inclined to accept their illness (P = 0,005) when compared to patients with Hashimoto disease. A statistically significant correlation occurred between the age of patients and external (i.e., in other persons) health locus of control.

Background

Adaptation to a chronic somatic disease depends on a variety of factors, including belief in health locus of control.

Objectives

Correlation between health locus of control and illness acceptance in patients with Graves-Basedow and Hashimoto diseases as well as correlation between health locus of control, illness acceptance, sex, and age.

Conclusions

Beliefs in health locus of control and type of illness in female patient group are predictors of illness acceptance (P = 0,0009).

Patients and Methods

Three methods were applied: Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale by K.A. Wallston, B.S. Wallston and R. DeVellis; the Acceptance of Illness Scale by B.J. Felton, T.A. Revenson, and G.A. Hinrichsena; and a personal questionnaire. Two groups were subject to the research: 68 patients with Graves-Basedow disease and 54 patients with Hashimoto disease.

Results

Patients with Graves-Basedow disease, women above all, have their health locus of control in other persons (P = 0,001) and are less inclined to accept their illness (P = 0,005) when compared to patients with Hashimoto disease. A statistically significant correlation occurred between the age of patients and external (i.e., in other persons) health locus of control.

Background

Adaptation to a chronic somatic disease depends on a variety of factors, including belief in health locus of control.

Objectives

Correlation between health locus of control and illness acceptance in patients with Graves-Basedow and Hashimoto diseases as well as correlation between health locus of control, illness acceptance, sex, and age.

Graves Disease;Hashimoto Disease Graves Disease;Hashimoto Disease 537 542 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=3932 Malgorzata Anna Basinska Malgorzata Anna Basinska Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland +31-523708400, malbasinska@wp.pl; Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland +31-523708400, malbasinska@wp.pl Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland +31-523708400, malbasinska@wp.pl; Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland +31-523708400, malbasinska@wp.pl Anna Andruszkiewicz Anna Andruszkiewicz Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland
en 10.5812/ijem.4540 Construction of Plasmid Insulin Gene Vector Containing Metallothionein IIA (pcDNAMTChIns) and Carbohydrate Response Element (ChoRE), and Its Expression in NIH3T3 Cell Line Construction of Plasmid Insulin Gene Vector Containing Metallothionein IIA (pcDNAMTChIns) and Carbohydrate Response Element (ChoRE), and Its Expression in NIH3T3 Cell Line research-article research-article Background

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the metabolic diseases that cause insulin-producing pancreatic ß cells be destroyed by immune system self-reactive T cells. Recent­ly, new treatment methods have been developed including use of the stem cells, ß islet cells transplantation and gene therapy by viral and non-viral gene constructs.

Objectives

The aim of this project was preparing the non-viral vector containing the glucose inducible insulin gene and using it in the NIH3T3 cell line.

Materials and Methods

Cloning was carried out by standard methods. Total RNA was extracted from pancreatic tissue, RNA was converted to cDNA using RT-PCR reaction and preproinsulin gene was amplified using specific primers. PNMTCH plasmid was extract­ed and digested by NotI, HindIII, and MTIIA and ChoRE genes were purified and cloned into pcDNA3.1 (-) plasmid and named pcDNAMTCh. Finally, the preproinsulin genes were cloned into pcDNA3.1 (-) plasmid and pcDNAMTChIns was built.

Results

The cloned gene constructs were evaluated by restriction enzyme digestion and RT-PCR. The NIH3T3 cells were transfected by plasmid naked DNA containing preproinsu­lin gene and expression was confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase PCR and Western Blot­ting Techniques.

Conclusions

Gel electrophoresis of PCR products confirmed that cloning was per­formed correctly. The expression of preproinsulin gene in recombinant plasmid in NI­H3T3 cell line was observed for the first time. The findings in this study can be the basis of further research on diabetes mellitus type 1 gene therapy on animals.

Background

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the metabolic diseases that cause insulin-producing pancreatic ß cells be destroyed by immune system self-reactive T cells. Recent­ly, new treatment methods have been developed including use of the stem cells, ß islet cells transplantation and gene therapy by viral and non-viral gene constructs.

Objectives

The aim of this project was preparing the non-viral vector containing the glucose inducible insulin gene and using it in the NIH3T3 cell line.

Materials and Methods

Cloning was carried out by standard methods. Total RNA was extracted from pancreatic tissue, RNA was converted to cDNA using RT-PCR reaction and preproinsulin gene was amplified using specific primers. PNMTCH plasmid was extract­ed and digested by NotI, HindIII, and MTIIA and ChoRE genes were purified and cloned into pcDNA3.1 (-) plasmid and named pcDNAMTCh. Finally, the preproinsulin genes were cloned into pcDNA3.1 (-) plasmid and pcDNAMTChIns was built.

Results

The cloned gene constructs were evaluated by restriction enzyme digestion and RT-PCR. The NIH3T3 cells were transfected by plasmid naked DNA containing preproinsu­lin gene and expression was confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase PCR and Western Blot­ting Techniques.

Conclusions

Gel electrophoresis of PCR products confirmed that cloning was per­formed correctly. The expression of preproinsulin gene in recombinant plasmid in NI­H3T3 cell line was observed for the first time. The findings in this study can be the basis of further research on diabetes mellitus type 1 gene therapy on animals.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus; Gene Therapy; Insulin Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus; Gene Therapy; Insulin 543 547 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4540 Hossein Piri Hossein Piri Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran Bahram Kazemi Bahram Kazemi Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran; Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran; Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran Mohsen Rezaei Mohsen Rezaei Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran Mojgan Bandehpour Mojgan Bandehpour Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran; Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran; Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran Iraj Khodadadi Iraj Khodadadi Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran Taghi Hassanzadeh Taghi Hassanzadeh Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran Jamshid Karimi Jamshid Karimi Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran Fatemeh Yarian Fatemeh Yarian Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran; Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran; Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, IR Iran Habibollah Peirovi Habibollah Peirovi Nano Medicine and Tissue Engineering Research Center- Shahid Beheshti University of medical sciences, IR Iran Nano Medicine and Tissue Engineering Research Center- Shahid Beheshti University of medical sciences, IR Iran Amir Hossein Tavakoli Amir Hossein Tavakoli Iranian Tissue Bank Research and Preparation Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Science, IR Iran Iranian Tissue Bank Research and Preparation Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Science, IR Iran Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran +98-8118380208, mtgoodarzi@umsha.ac.ir; Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran +98-8118380208, mtgoodarzi@umsha.ac.ir Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran +98-8118380208, mtgoodarzi@umsha.ac.ir; Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Science, IR Iran +98-8118380208, mtgoodarzi@umsha.ac.ir
en 10.5812/ijem.3058 Advantage of Applying OSC to 1H NMR-Based Metabonomic Data of Celiac Disease Advantage of Applying OSC to <sup>1</sup>H NMR-Based Metabonomic Data of Celiac Disease research-article research-article Background

Celiac disease (CD) is a disorder associated with body reaction to gluten. After the gluten intake, an immune reaction against the protein occurs and damages villi of small intestine in celiac patients gradually.

Objectives

The OSC, a filtering method for minimization of inter- and intra-spectrometer variations that influence on data acquisition, was applied to biofluid NMR data of CD patients.

Patients and Methods

In this study, metabolites of total 56 serum samples from 12 CD patients, 15 CD patients taking gluten-free diet (GFD), and 29 healthy cases were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and associated theoretical analysis. Employing ProMetab (version ProMetab_v3_3) software, data obtained from NMR spectra were reduced and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) effect on celiac disease metabonomics before and after the separation by principle component analysis (PCA) was investigated.

Results

The three groups were separated by OSC and findings were analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method. Root mean square error of calibration (RMSEc) and correlation coefficient of calibration (Rc) for PLS-DA referred to an efficient group separation filtered by OSC.

Conclusions

The applied leave-one-out cross-validation to PLS-DA method performed along with OSC confirmed validation of data analysis. Finally four metabolites are introduced as CD biomarkers.

Background

Celiac disease (CD) is a disorder associated with body reaction to gluten. After the gluten intake, an immune reaction against the protein occurs and damages villi of small intestine in celiac patients gradually.

Objectives

The OSC, a filtering method for minimization of inter- and intra-spectrometer variations that influence on data acquisition, was applied to biofluid NMR data of CD patients.

Patients and Methods

In this study, metabolites of total 56 serum samples from 12 CD patients, 15 CD patients taking gluten-free diet (GFD), and 29 healthy cases were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and associated theoretical analysis. Employing ProMetab (version ProMetab_v3_3) software, data obtained from NMR spectra were reduced and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) effect on celiac disease metabonomics before and after the separation by principle component analysis (PCA) was investigated.

Results

The three groups were separated by OSC and findings were analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method. Root mean square error of calibration (RMSEc) and correlation coefficient of calibration (Rc) for PLS-DA referred to an efficient group separation filtered by OSC.

Conclusions

The applied leave-one-out cross-validation to PLS-DA method performed along with OSC confirmed validation of data analysis. Finally four metabolites are introduced as CD biomarkers.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy;Principle Component Analysis;Discriminant Analysis;Celiac Disease Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy;Principle Component Analysis;Discriminant Analysis;Celiac Disease 548 552 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=3058 Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Fariba Fathi Fariba Fathi Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9516, IR Iran +98-2166165305, Tafazzoli@sharif.edu Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9516, IR Iran +98-2166165305, Tafazzoli@sharif.edu Fatemeh Darvizeh Fatemeh Darvizeh Department of Medicine, Debrecen Medical School, Hungary Department of Medicine, Debrecen Medical School, Hungary Mohamad Reza Reza Zali Mohamad Reza Reza Zali Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Mohamad Rostami Rostami Nejad Mohamad Rostami Rostami Nejad Acute Medicine, Dudley Group of Hospital, UK Acute Medicine, Dudley Group of Hospital, UK Kamran Rostami Kamran Rostami Department of Basic Science Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4618, IR Iran +98-2122718505, a.arefi@sbmu.ir Department of Basic Science Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4618, IR Iran +98-2122718505, a.arefi@sbmu.ir Mohsen Tafazzoli Mohsen Tafazzoli Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9516, IR Iran +98-2166165305, Tafazzoli@sharif.edu; Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9516, IR Iran +98-2166165305, Tafazzoli@sharif.edu Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9516, IR Iran +98-2166165305, Tafazzoli@sharif.edu; Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9516, IR Iran +98-2166165305, Tafazzoli@sharif.edu Afsaneh Arefi Arefi oskouie Afsaneh Arefi Arefi oskouie Department of Basic Science Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4618, IR Iran +98-2122718505, a.arefi@sbmu.ir; Department of Basic Science Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4618, IR Iran +98-2122718505, a.arefi@sbmu.ir Department of Basic Science Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4618, IR Iran +98-2122718505, a.arefi@sbmu.ir; Department of Basic Science Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4618, IR Iran +98-2122718505, a.arefi@sbmu.ir Seyed AbdolReza AbdolReza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei Seyed AbdolReza AbdolReza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei Department of Basic Science Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4618, IR Iran +98-2122718505, a.arefi@sbmu.ir Department of Basic Science Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4618, IR Iran +98-2122718505, a.arefi@sbmu.ir
en 10.5812/ijem.3914 Effect of Ghrelin on Aldolase Gene Expression in the Heart of Chronic Hypoxic Rat Effect of Ghrelin on Aldolase Gene Expression in the Heart of Chronic Hypoxic Rat research-article research-article Background

Chronic hypoxia causes apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, however, energy production by anaerobic glycolysis protects myocardium against hypoxia injuries. Aldolase A is a well-characterised key enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid peptide, synthesizes in the stomach and has protective roles in cardiovascular systems and also affects metabolic pathways.

Objectives

Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on aldolase A gene expression after chronic hypoxia in the rat hearts.

Materials and Methods

Twenty four adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Hypoxic rats with saline or ghrelin treatment were placed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber (O2 11 %), for two weeks. Controls remained in room air. Aldolase A gene expression was measured by Real-Time RT-PCR.

Results

the transcriptiom rate of Aldolase A in hypoxic animals did not change significantly compared to negative control ones. During chronic hypoxia, ghrelin treatment increased the amount of heart Aldolase A gene expression compared to negative controls (P = 0.029). Hypoxic animals that were treated with ghrelin were significantly more polycythemic than the controls and even hypoxic with saline treated rats (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

It seems that ghrelin interferes in the cardiac metabolism through up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes. In other words, it may protect heart from possible hypoxia induced damages.

Background

Chronic hypoxia causes apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, however, energy production by anaerobic glycolysis protects myocardium against hypoxia injuries. Aldolase A is a well-characterised key enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid peptide, synthesizes in the stomach and has protective roles in cardiovascular systems and also affects metabolic pathways.

Objectives

Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on aldolase A gene expression after chronic hypoxia in the rat hearts.

Materials and Methods

Twenty four adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Hypoxic rats with saline or ghrelin treatment were placed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber (O2 11 %), for two weeks. Controls remained in room air. Aldolase A gene expression was measured by Real-Time RT-PCR.

Results

the transcriptiom rate of Aldolase A in hypoxic animals did not change significantly compared to negative control ones. During chronic hypoxia, ghrelin treatment increased the amount of heart Aldolase A gene expression compared to negative controls (P = 0.029). Hypoxic animals that were treated with ghrelin were significantly more polycythemic than the controls and even hypoxic with saline treated rats (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

It seems that ghrelin interferes in the cardiac metabolism through up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes. In other words, it may protect heart from possible hypoxia induced damages.

Ghrelin;Cell Hypoxia;Heart;Glycolytic enzymes;Rat Ghrelin;Cell Hypoxia;Heart;Glycolytic enzymes;Rat 553 557 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=3914 Mohammad Reza Aliparasti Mohammad Reza Aliparasti Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran; Department of Immunology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran; Department of Immunology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Mohammad Reza Alipour Mohammad Reza Alipour Tuberculosis and Lung Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Tuberculosis and Lung Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Shohreh Almasi Shohreh Almasi Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran; Department of Immunology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran; Department of Immunology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Hadi Feizi Hadi Feizi Department of Physiology, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +911-1344632, hfeizyk@gmail.com; Department of Immunology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Department of Physiology, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +911-1344632, hfeizyk@gmail.com; Department of Immunology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.4211 Effect of Interaction Between Testosterone and Morphine on Serum Ghrelin Concentration in Sheep Fed on Different Dietary Energy Levels Effect of Interaction Between Testosterone and Morphine on Serum Ghrelin Concentration in Sheep Fed on Different Dietary Energy Levels research-article research-article Background

Ghrelin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. It also decreases testosterone and opioid secretion.

Objectives

The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of testosterone, morphine or simultaneous injection of testosterone and morphine on mean serum ghrelin concentration in sheep.

Conclusions

There is a direct correlation between food restriction, testosterone and ghrelin concentration in ruminants. However, a simultaneous injection of testosterone and morphine did not exert an additive effect on ghrelin secretion.

Materials and Methods

Ten sheep were divided into two groups (n = 5 in each group), they were fed with either 50 % or 100 % of their dietary energy needs for 10 days. Body weight was measured on the 1st and 10th day of the experiment. Animals in both groups received testosterone (60 μg/kg), morphine (0.15 mg/kg), or a simultaneous infusion of testosterone (60 μg/kg) and morphine (0.15 mg/kg), on the 8th, 9th, or 10th day of the experiment respectively. Blood samples were collected before and 2 hours after the infusions. Ghrelin concentration was determined by RIA (radio immunoassay).

Results

In the 50 % group, ghrelin concentrations increased significantly on the 8th day of the experiment, compared to the 1st day (P < 0.05). While in the 100 % group, no significant change was observed. In both groups the animals’ body weight did not increase significantly on the 10th day compared to the 1st day. Testosterone significantly increased ghrelin levels after injection compared to before infusion, in both groups (P < 0.05). Morphine increased ghrelin concentration in both groups, but this increase was not statistically significant. Simultaneous injection of testosterone and morphine together, significantly increased ghrelin concentration following injection compared to before infusion, in both groups (P < 0.05).

Background

Ghrelin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. It also decreases testosterone and opioid secretion.

Objectives

The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of testosterone, morphine or simultaneous injection of testosterone and morphine on mean serum ghrelin concentration in sheep.

Conclusions

There is a direct correlation between food restriction, testosterone and ghrelin concentration in ruminants. However, a simultaneous injection of testosterone and morphine did not exert an additive effect on ghrelin secretion.

Materials and Methods

Ten sheep were divided into two groups (n = 5 in each group), they were fed with either 50 % or 100 % of their dietary energy needs for 10 days. Body weight was measured on the 1st and 10th day of the experiment. Animals in both groups received testosterone (60 μg/kg), morphine (0.15 mg/kg), or a simultaneous infusion of testosterone (60 μg/kg) and morphine (0.15 mg/kg), on the 8th, 9th, or 10th day of the experiment respectively. Blood samples were collected before and 2 hours after the infusions. Ghrelin concentration was determined by RIA (radio immunoassay).

Results

In the 50 % group, ghrelin concentrations increased significantly on the 8th day of the experiment, compared to the 1st day (P < 0.05). While in the 100 % group, no significant change was observed. In both groups the animals’ body weight did not increase significantly on the 10th day compared to the 1st day. Testosterone significantly increased ghrelin levels after injection compared to before infusion, in both groups (P < 0.05). Morphine increased ghrelin concentration in both groups, but this increase was not statistically significant. Simultaneous injection of testosterone and morphine together, significantly increased ghrelin concentration following injection compared to before infusion, in both groups (P < 0.05).

Ghrelin;Morphine;Testosterone;Sheep Ghrelin;Morphine;Testosterone;Sheep 558 562 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4211 Davod Jafaripour Davod Jafaripour Faculty of Biology Science, Shahid Beheshti University, IR Iran +936-4526724, azn_araz@yahoo.com; Faculty of Biology Science, Shahid Beheshti University, IR Iran +936-4526724, azn_araz@yahoo.com Faculty of Biology Science, Shahid Beheshti University, IR Iran +936-4526724, azn_araz@yahoo.com; Faculty of Biology Science, Shahid Beheshti University, IR Iran +936-4526724, azn_araz@yahoo.com Homayoun Khazali Homayoun Khazali Faculty of Physiology, Shahid Beheshti University, IR Iran Faculty of Physiology, Shahid Beheshti University, IR Iran Hasan Rokni Hasan Rokni Applied Scientific Education Institute of Jahad Keshavarzi, IR Iran Applied Scientific Education Institute of Jahad Keshavarzi, IR Iran Hiva Alipanah Hiva Alipanah Animal physiology, Shahid Beheshti University, IR Iran Animal physiology, Shahid Beheshti University, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.3661 Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man review-article review-article

Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine influence on the brain process of aggression forms a triad. Testosterone activates the subcortical areas of the brain to produce aggression, while cortisol and serotonin act antagonistically with testosterone to reduce its effects.

Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine influence on the brain process of aggression forms a triad. Testosterone activates the subcortical areas of the brain to produce aggression, while cortisol and serotonin act antagonistically with testosterone to reduce its effects.

Testosterone;Cortisol;Serotonin;Aggressiveness Testosterone;Cortisol;Serotonin;Aggressiveness 563 568 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=3661 Menelaos L. L. Batrinos Menelaos L. L. Batrinos Cu|woowni~eww{}yimouisu~ School, Greece +30-2106204041, bithrini@ath.forthnet.gr; Cu|woowni~eww{}yimouisu~ School, Greece +30-2106204041, bithrini@ath.forthnet.gr Cu|woowni~eww{}yimouisu~ School, Greece +30-2106204041, bithrini@ath.forthnet.gr; Cu|woowni~eww{}yimouisu~ School, Greece +30-2106204041, bithrini@ath.forthnet.gr
en 10.5812/ijem.4500 Tuberculous Cervical Lymphadenitis Masquerding as Metastatis From Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Tuberculous Cervical Lymphadenitis Masquerding as Metastatis From Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma case-report case-report

Clinically apparent cervical lymphadenopathy has been found at the initial presentation in 23 to 56 % of cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Here we report tuberculous lymphadenitis mimicking metastatic lymph nodes from papillary thyroid carcinoma and suggest that tuberculosis apart from metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma should also be considered in the etiology of enlarged lymph nodes in such patients, especially in those with risk factors for tuberculosis. Therefore, the importance of careful pre-operative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis cannot be overestimated, so that patients do not undergo unnecessary neck dissection for other benign conditions.

Clinically apparent cervical lymphadenopathy has been found at the initial presentation in 23 to 56 % of cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Here we report tuberculous lymphadenitis mimicking metastatic lymph nodes from papillary thyroid carcinoma and suggest that tuberculosis apart from metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma should also be considered in the etiology of enlarged lymph nodes in such patients, especially in those with risk factors for tuberculosis. Therefore, the importance of careful pre-operative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis cannot be overestimated, so that patients do not undergo unnecessary neck dissection for other benign conditions.

Papillary Carcinoma;Lymphadenopathy;Tuberculosis Papillary Carcinoma;Lymphadenopathy;Tuberculosis 569 572 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4500 Syed Mushtaq Mushtaq Saif Andrabi Syed Mushtaq Mushtaq Saif Andrabi Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com; Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com; Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com Mohd Hayat Hayat Bhat Mohd Hayat Hayat Bhat Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com Bagdadi Farhana Bagdadi Farhana Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com Sameena Saba Sameena Saba Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com Riyaz Saif Andrabi Riyaz Saif Andrabi Department of Medicine SKIMS Soura Srinagar, India Department of Medicine SKIMS Soura Srinagar, India Parvez Ahmad Ahmad Shah Parvez Ahmad Ahmad Shah Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com Department of Medicine SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India +91-9419062937, drmushtaq012@yahoo.com
en 10.5812/ijem.5367 Effects of Raloxifene on Bone Metabolism in Hemodialysis Patients Effects of Raloxifene on Bone Metabolism in Hemodialysis Patients letter letter Raloxifene;Alkaline Phosphatase;Quantitative Ultrasound;Speed of Sound;Chronic Kidney Disease Raloxifene;Alkaline Phosphatase;Quantitative Ultrasound;Speed of Sound;Chronic Kidney Disease 573 575 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5367 Jun Iwamoto Jun Iwamoto Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, 160-8582, Japan +81-333531211, jiwamoto@a8.keio.jp; Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, 160-8582, Japan +81-333531211, jiwamoto@a8.keio.jp Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, 160-8582, Japan +81-333531211, jiwamoto@a8.keio.jp; Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, 160-8582, Japan +81-333531211, jiwamoto@a8.keio.jp
en 10.5812/ijem.5457 Raloxifene in Hemodialysis Patients Raloxifene in Hemodialysis Patients letter letter Raloxifene;Oxidative Stress Raloxifene;Oxidative Stress 576 576 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5457 Frieder Keller Frieder Keller Nephrology Department, University Hospital, Albert Einstein Allee 23, D-89070, Germany +49-73150044561, frieder.keller@uni-ulm.de; Nephrology Department, University Hospital, Albert Einstein Allee 23, D-89070, Germany +49-73150044561, frieder.keller@uni-ulm.de Nephrology Department, University Hospital, Albert Einstein Allee 23, D-89070, Germany +49-73150044561, frieder.keller@uni-ulm.de; Nephrology Department, University Hospital, Albert Einstein Allee 23, D-89070, Germany +49-73150044561, frieder.keller@uni-ulm.de
en 10.5812/ijem.5341 Oxidative Stress and Raloxifene Oxidative Stress and Raloxifene letter letter Raloxifene;Bone Metabolism Raloxifene;Bone Metabolism 577 578 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5341 Gurkan Akgol Gurkan Akgol Bingol State Hospital, PMR Clinic, Turkey Bingol State Hospital, PMR Clinic, Turkey Arif Gulkesen Arif Gulkesen Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Deptartment PMR, Turkey Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Deptartment PMR, Turkey Salih Ozgocmen Salih Ozgocmen Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine, Depusv}mo~tp]_~,dm{{oonoofrzmu}muoooy, Turkey +90-5327645440, sozgocmen@hotmail.com; Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine, Depusv}mo~tp]_~,dm{{oonoofrzmu}muoooy, Turkey +90-5327645440, sozgocmen@hotmail.com Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine, Depusv}mo~tp]_~,dm{{oonoofrzmu}muoooy, Turkey +90-5327645440, sozgocmen@hotmail.com; Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine, Depusv}mo~tp]_~,dm{{oonoofrzmu}muoooy, Turkey +90-5327645440, sozgocmen@hotmail.com
en 10.5812/ijem.6984 Corrigendum to: Relationship Between Hormonal Variables and Bone Mineral Density, Muscle Force, and Fat Mass in Peripubertal Girls [published in Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2011;9(3):391-396] Corrigendum to: Relationship Between Hormonal Variables and Bone Mineral Density, Muscle Force, and Fat Mass in Peripubertal Girls [published in Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2011;9(3):391-396] addendum addendum 579 579 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6984