International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism Int J Endocrinol Metab http://www.endometabol.com 1726-913X 1726-9148 10.5812/ijem en jalali 2017 6 28 gregorian 2017 6 28 11 1
en Table of Content Table of Content issue-information issue-information Table of Content Table of Content http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10830
en Editorial board Editorial board issue-information issue-information Editorial Board Editorial Board http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10833
en 10.5812/ijem.7963 Which One is More Important, Obesity or Cardio Metabolic Risk Factors? Which One is More Important, Obesity or Cardio Metabolic Risk Factors? editorial editorial Obesity; Cardio Metabolic Obesity; Cardio Metabolic 1 2 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7963 Farhad Hosseinpanah Farhad Hosseinpanah Obesity Research Center,,rwwwesskhiow}}uuueforeonoos{ooesskmoogw,s{iiimdbgmmw{|}iuowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogws, P.O.Box: 19395-4763, IR Iran +98-2122409309, fhospanah@endocrine.ac.ir; Obesity Research Center,,rwwwesskhiow}}uuueforeonoos{ooesskmoogw,s{iiimdbgmmw{|}iuowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogws, P.O.Box: 19395-4763, IR Iran +98-2122409309, fhospanah@endocrine.ac.ir Obesity Research Center,,rwwwesskhiow}}uuueforeonoos{ooesskmoogw,s{iiimdbgmmw{|}iuowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogws, P.O.Box: 19395-4763, IR Iran +98-2122409309, fhospanah@endocrine.ac.ir; Obesity Research Center,,rwwwesskhiow}}uuueforeonoos{ooesskmoogw,s{iiimdbgmmw{|}iuowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogws, P.O.Box: 19395-4763, IR Iran +98-2122409309, fhospanah@endocrine.ac.ir
en 10.5812/ijem.6535 Serum Leptin Level Is Reduced in Non-Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Serum Leptin Level Is Reduced in Non-Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes research-article research-article Background

Leptin, a protein released from adipose tissue, could have significant role in pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Conclusions

It is speculated that lower serum leptin levels in diabetic patients may be a consequence of male gender. Moreover, results suggest that serum leptin level in women is influenced differently than that in men.

Results

The serum leptin level in type 2 diabetic patients (19.32 ± 11.43 ng/mL) was significantly lower than that in non-diabetic subjects (32.16 ± 11.02 ng/mL). Serum leptin level was strongly and positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.658, P < 0.0001) and calculated body fat percentage (r = 0.431, P < 0.0001) in all the study subjects with a better corrlation in the control subjcts compared to control cases (r = 0.661 for BMI and r = 0.466 for body fat). On the other hand, leptin showed a positive and significant correlation with insulin and HOMA- β (homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function) in both groups. Furthermore, leptin related to homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.422, P = 0.006) was observed only in T2DM subjects. Leptin showed negative correlation with waist to hip ratio in diabetic (r = -0.407, P =0.008) and non-diabetic subjects (r = -0.318, P =0.049). In the regression model, BMI, HOMA-β, and gender were independent predictors of leptin in all subjects. However, in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects, β-cell function and insulin were independent predictors, respectively (P =0.01).

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate variations in serum leptin levels in non-obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Patients and Methods

We studied forty-one patients with type 2 diabetes. Fasting lipid profile, Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), serum leptin, insulin, and glucose levels were measured by standard methods.

Background

Leptin, a protein released from adipose tissue, could have significant role in pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Conclusions

It is speculated that lower serum leptin levels in diabetic patients may be a consequence of male gender. Moreover, results suggest that serum leptin level in women is influenced differently than that in men.

Results

The serum leptin level in type 2 diabetic patients (19.32 ± 11.43 ng/mL) was significantly lower than that in non-diabetic subjects (32.16 ± 11.02 ng/mL). Serum leptin level was strongly and positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.658, P < 0.0001) and calculated body fat percentage (r = 0.431, P < 0.0001) in all the study subjects with a better corrlation in the control subjcts compared to control cases (r = 0.661 for BMI and r = 0.466 for body fat). On the other hand, leptin showed a positive and significant correlation with insulin and HOMA- β (homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function) in both groups. Furthermore, leptin related to homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.422, P = 0.006) was observed only in T2DM subjects. Leptin showed negative correlation with waist to hip ratio in diabetic (r = -0.407, P =0.008) and non-diabetic subjects (r = -0.318, P =0.049). In the regression model, BMI, HOMA-β, and gender were independent predictors of leptin in all subjects. However, in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects, β-cell function and insulin were independent predictors, respectively (P =0.01).

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate variations in serum leptin levels in non-obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Patients and Methods

We studied forty-one patients with type 2 diabetes. Fasting lipid profile, Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), serum leptin, insulin, and glucose levels were measured by standard methods.

Leptin; Type 2 Diabetes; Body Mass Index Leptin; Type 2 Diabetes; Body Mass Index 3 10 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6535 Ghorban Mohammadzadeh Ghorban Mohammadzadeh Hyperlipidemia Research Center, Department of comookcmlbkookmmm{wv{},fgcw}|}yoofmmemkkoom,ai~w{zun}~e{siuyufuomvmssmt{cognoewical Sciences, IR Iran +98-91134368125, mohammadzadeh@ajums.ac.ir; Hyperlipidemia Research Center, Department of comookcmlbkookmmm{wv{},fgcw}|}yoofmmemkkoom,ai~w{zun}~e{siuyufuomvmssmt{cognoewical Sciences, IR Iran +98-91134368125, mohammadzadeh@ajums.ac.ir Hyperlipidemia Research Center, Department of comookcmlbkookmmm{wv{},fgcw}|}yoofmmemkkoom,ai~w{zun}~e{siuyufuomvmssmt{cognoewical Sciences, IR Iran +98-91134368125, mohammadzadeh@ajums.ac.ir; Hyperlipidemia Research Center, Department of comookcmlbkookmmm{wv{},fgcw}|}yoofmmemkkoom,ai~w{zun}~e{siuyufuomvmssmt{cognoewical Sciences, IR Iran +98-91134368125, mohammadzadeh@ajums.ac.ir Nosratollah Zarghami Nosratollah Zarghami Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.4284 Value of Exercise Tolerance Testing in Evaluation of Diabetic Patients Presented With Atypical Chest Discomfort Value of Exercise Tolerance Testing in Evaluation of Diabetic Patients Presented With Atypical Chest Discomfort research-article research-article Background

Coronary artery disease is the single most important cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. Electrocardiographic stress test is a non-invasive modality to screen significant coronary involvement in minimally symptomatic diabetics.

Objectives

We investigated the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of this test in comparison with coronary angiography.

Materials and Methods

130 diabetic patients with atypical chest discomfort were studied and tested using Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT) among which 100 cases showed positive results that further were studied invasively by selective coronary angiography.

Results

The positive predictive value of ETT for diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)among diabetic patients presented with atypical chest discomfort was 77%.

Conclusion

We conclude that electrocardiographic stress test is a valuable inexpensive non-invasive screening test in diabetic patients with atypical chest discomfort.

Background

Coronary artery disease is the single most important cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. Electrocardiographic stress test is a non-invasive modality to screen significant coronary involvement in minimally symptomatic diabetics.

Objectives

We investigated the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of this test in comparison with coronary angiography.

Materials and Methods

130 diabetic patients with atypical chest discomfort were studied and tested using Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT) among which 100 cases showed positive results that further were studied invasively by selective coronary angiography.

Results

The positive predictive value of ETT for diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)among diabetic patients presented with atypical chest discomfort was 77%.

Conclusion

We conclude that electrocardiographic stress test is a valuable inexpensive non-invasive screening test in diabetic patients with atypical chest discomfort.

Exercise Test;Chest Pain;Diabetes;Coronary Angiography;Ischemia Exercise Test;Chest Pain;Diabetes;Coronary Angiography;Ischemia 11 5 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4284 Mohammad Esmail Gheydari Mohammad Esmail Gheydari Cardiology Department, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Cardiology Department, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Mohsen Jamali Mohsen Jamali Cardiology Department, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Cardiology Department, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Farhad Hajsheikholeslami Farhad Hajsheikholeslami Research Institute for Endocrine sciences, Shahid Beheshti,uowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogws, IR Iran +98-2122432503, fsheikholeslami@yahoo.com; Research Institute for Endocrine sciences, Shahid Beheshti,uowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogws, IR Iran +98-2122432503, fsheikholeslami@yahoo.com Research Institute for Endocrine sciences, Shahid Beheshti,uowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogws, IR Iran +98-2122432503, fsheikholeslami@yahoo.com; Research Institute for Endocrine sciences, Shahid Beheshti,uowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogws, IR Iran +98-2122432503, fsheikholeslami@yahoo.com Shahrooz Yazdani Shahrooz Yazdani Cardiology Department, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Cardiology Department, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Mina Jamali Mina Jamali Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.4477 The Structure of Metabolic Syndrome Components Across Follow-Up Survey From Childhood to Adolescence The Structure of Metabolic Syndrome Components Across Follow-Up Survey From Childhood to Adolescence research-article research-article Background

The choice of what parameters are needed for the diagnosis of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been criticized due to the lack of an actual “gold standard” diagnostic test even in adults. This problem seems to be greater in children and adolescents.

Objectives

Stability assessment of factor structure underlying metabolic syndrome (MetS) components from childhood to adolescence in a panel study.

Patients and Methods

A total number of 643 (305 boys and 338 girls) children (from 1999 to 2001), aged 6-10 years, with a complete median follow-up of 6.7 years (from 2006 to 2008) were selected among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. We proposed 6 measured variables based on risk factors defined in Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines to describe clustering of MetS components.

Results

The Goodness of fit of the two-factor model, extracted from exploratory factor analysis, was appropriate for boys and girls in both stages of the study using confirmatory factor analysis. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and triglycerides (TGs), with parameter estimates (PE) of 1 and 0.75, respectively, were the greatest risk factors at baseline in boys and girls. Waist circumference with PE of 0.88 and 0.62, and SBP with PE of 0.99 and 0.86 in adolescent boys and girls, respectively, were important risk factors.

Conclusions

Our panel study supports the stability of the two-factor six-variable model across two developmental stages from childhood to adolescence, among which adiposity, SBP, and TG were the predominant risk factors.

Background

The choice of what parameters are needed for the diagnosis of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been criticized due to the lack of an actual “gold standard” diagnostic test even in adults. This problem seems to be greater in children and adolescents.

Objectives

Stability assessment of factor structure underlying metabolic syndrome (MetS) components from childhood to adolescence in a panel study.

Patients and Methods

A total number of 643 (305 boys and 338 girls) children (from 1999 to 2001), aged 6-10 years, with a complete median follow-up of 6.7 years (from 2006 to 2008) were selected among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. We proposed 6 measured variables based on risk factors defined in Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines to describe clustering of MetS components.

Results

The Goodness of fit of the two-factor model, extracted from exploratory factor analysis, was appropriate for boys and girls in both stages of the study using confirmatory factor analysis. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and triglycerides (TGs), with parameter estimates (PE) of 1 and 0.75, respectively, were the greatest risk factors at baseline in boys and girls. Waist circumference with PE of 0.88 and 0.62, and SBP with PE of 0.99 and 0.86 in adolescent boys and girls, respectively, were important risk factors.

Conclusions

Our panel study supports the stability of the two-factor six-variable model across two developmental stages from childhood to adolescence, among which adiposity, SBP, and TG were the predominant risk factors.

Adolescent;Childhood;Factor Analysis;Statistical Adolescent;Childhood;Factor Analysis;Statistical 16 22 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4477 Adeleh Bahar Adeleh Bahar Diabetes Research Centre, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Diabetes Research Centre, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Firoozeh Hosseini Esfahani Firoozeh Hosseini Esfahani Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Medical Education Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Medical Education Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Yadollah Mehrabi Yadollah Mehrabi School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Fereidoun Azizi Fereidoun Azizi Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4763, IR Iran +98-2122432500, azizi@endocrine.ac.ir; Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4763, IR Iran +98-2122432500, azizi@endocrine.ac.ir Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4763, IR Iran +98-2122432500, azizi@endocrine.ac.ir; Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4763, IR Iran +98-2122432500, azizi@endocrine.ac.ir
en 10.5812/ijem.8403 Number of Components of the Metabolic Syndrome; Smoking and Inflammatory Markers Number of Components of the Metabolic Syndrome; Smoking and Inflammatory Markers research-article research-article Background

The association between inflammatory markers and the combination of the smoking status plus a number of components of the metabolic syndrome was not fully evaluated in male Japanese subjects.

Objectives

To demonstrate the association between inflammatory markers and the number of components of the metabolic syndrome by considering smoking status.

Patients and Methods

A total of 3,017 male subjects (1,047 current smokers, 1,970 non-smokers) were included. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined by the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The smoking status was categorized in a binary manner into current smokers or non-smokers.

Results

The geometric mean value of the serum CRP increased linearly as the number of components of MetS increased (P < 0.05). In contrast, the mean values of the total WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts showed peak values when the number of MetS components was 3 or 4. The log-transformed serum CRP levels and the WBC counts were significantly correlated with one another (P < 0.001), but Pearson’s correlation coefficient was under 0.3 for current smokers.

Conclusions

Among several inflammatory markers, the serum CRP predominantly changed linearly as the number of MetS increased regardless of smoking status.

Background

The association between inflammatory markers and the combination of the smoking status plus a number of components of the metabolic syndrome was not fully evaluated in male Japanese subjects.

Objectives

To demonstrate the association between inflammatory markers and the number of components of the metabolic syndrome by considering smoking status.

Patients and Methods

A total of 3,017 male subjects (1,047 current smokers, 1,970 non-smokers) were included. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined by the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The smoking status was categorized in a binary manner into current smokers or non-smokers.

Results

The geometric mean value of the serum CRP increased linearly as the number of components of MetS increased (P < 0.05). In contrast, the mean values of the total WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts showed peak values when the number of MetS components was 3 or 4. The log-transformed serum CRP levels and the WBC counts were significantly correlated with one another (P < 0.001), but Pearson’s correlation coefficient was under 0.3 for current smokers.

Conclusions

Among several inflammatory markers, the serum CRP predominantly changed linearly as the number of MetS increased regardless of smoking status.

Metabolic Syndrome; Inflammation; Smoking Metabolic Syndrome; Inflammation; Smoking 23 26 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8403 Tomoyuki Kawada Tomoyuki Kawada Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School,1ouoymouagi, Bunkyo-Ku, 113-8602, Japan +81-338222131, kawada@nms.ac.jp; Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School,1ouoymouagi, Bunkyo-Ku, 113-8602, Japan +81-338222131, kawada@nms.ac.jp Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School,1ouoymouagi, Bunkyo-Ku, 113-8602, Japan +81-338222131, kawada@nms.ac.jp; Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School,1ouoymouagi, Bunkyo-Ku, 113-8602, Japan +81-338222131, kawada@nms.ac.jp Toshiaki Otsuka Toshiaki Otsuka Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School,1ouoymouagi, Bunkyo-Ku, 113-8602, Japan +81-338222131, kawada@nms.ac.jp Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School,1ouoymouagi, Bunkyo-Ku, 113-8602, Japan +81-338222131, kawada@nms.ac.jp Tokiomi Endo Tokiomi Endo Division of Health Evaluation & Promotion, Ota Memorial Hospital, Ota-city, Japan Division of Health Evaluation & Promotion, Ota Memorial Hospital, Ota-city, Japan Yoichi Kon Yoichi Kon Division of Health Evaluation & Promotion, Ota Memorial Hospital, Ota-city, Japan Division of Health Evaluation & Promotion, Ota Memorial Hospital, Ota-city, Japan
en 10.5812/ijem.6872 Changes in Serum Leptin During Phases of Menstrual Cycle of Fertile Women: Relationship to Age Groups and Fertility Changes in Serum Leptin During Phases of Menstrual Cycle of Fertile Women: Relationship to Age Groups and Fertility research-article research-article Results

There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in leptin levels on day 14 (12.75 + 5.8 ng/mL) and day 21 (12.91 + 3.2 ng/mL) for age group 18-30 years compared to day 14 (11.60 + 3.2 ng/mL) and day 21 (11.60 + 3.2 ng/mL) for age group 31-40 years. Leptin was positively correlated with FSH on day 14, with LH on day 7 and day 21; likewise, with progesterone on day 21 and day 28 and with estradiol on day 7 and day 14 for both age groups.

Conclusions

The serum leptin level was at the lowest level during the menstrual and secretory phase and the highest level was around the luteal phase. The significant increase ofleptin in the younger age group raise this question whether circulating leptin has any role to play in the age of pregnancy and fertility. Data in this study shows that leptin level was affected with increase in age; therefore changes in leptin level will affect fertility in this study suggest that there may be a relation between leptin levels and fertility.

Patients and Methods

A total of 118 healthy fertile women with normal menstrual cycle aged between 18-40, were divided into two age groups (n = 65) 18-30 years and (n = 53) 31-40 years. Serum concentrations of leptin, estradiol, progesterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured on day1 (menstrual phase), day7 (proliferative/follicular phase), day14 (ovulatory phase), day21 (luteal phase) and day 28(secretory phase) of the menstrual cycle.

Background

It is established that serum level of leptin is affected by transitional phases of reproduction. It is also reported that the puberty is triggered when body fat and circulating levels of leptin exceed the critical thresholds, butthere is less focus on the serum level of leptin and its relationship with different phases of menstrual cycle and the fertility.

Objectives

The present study try to determines the serum concentration of leptin and fertility hormonesin the various phases of normal menstrual cycle of fertile women and compare any difference in serum concentration between age groups of 18-30 years and 31-41 years It is a well known fact that fertility start to decrease from age 31 years.

Results

There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in leptin levels on day 14 (12.75 + 5.8 ng/mL) and day 21 (12.91 + 3.2 ng/mL) for age group 18-30 years compared to day 14 (11.60 + 3.2 ng/mL) and day 21 (11.60 + 3.2 ng/mL) for age group 31-40 years. Leptin was positively correlated with FSH on day 14, with LH on day 7 and day 21; likewise, with progesterone on day 21 and day 28 and with estradiol on day 7 and day 14 for both age groups.

Conclusions

The serum leptin level was at the lowest level during the menstrual and secretory phase and the highest level was around the luteal phase. The significant increase ofleptin in the younger age group raise this question whether circulating leptin has any role to play in the age of pregnancy and fertility. Data in this study shows that leptin level was affected with increase in age; therefore changes in leptin level will affect fertility in this study suggest that there may be a relation between leptin levels and fertility.

Patients and Methods

A total of 118 healthy fertile women with normal menstrual cycle aged between 18-40, were divided into two age groups (n = 65) 18-30 years and (n = 53) 31-40 years. Serum concentrations of leptin, estradiol, progesterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured on day1 (menstrual phase), day7 (proliferative/follicular phase), day14 (ovulatory phase), day21 (luteal phase) and day 28(secretory phase) of the menstrual cycle.

Background

It is established that serum level of leptin is affected by transitional phases of reproduction. It is also reported that the puberty is triggered when body fat and circulating levels of leptin exceed the critical thresholds, butthere is less focus on the serum level of leptin and its relationship with different phases of menstrual cycle and the fertility.

Objectives

The present study try to determines the serum concentration of leptin and fertility hormonesin the various phases of normal menstrual cycle of fertile women and compare any difference in serum concentration between age groups of 18-30 years and 31-41 years It is a well known fact that fertility start to decrease from age 31 years.

Leptin;FSH;LH;Progesterone;Oestradiol;Menstrual Cyc Leptin;FSH;LH;Progesterone;Oestradiol;Menstrual Cyc 27 33 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6872 Olawole Micheal Ajala Olawole Micheal Ajala Department of Chemical Pathology, Lagos State Laboratory Services Lagos Island General Hospital, Nigeria Department of Chemical Pathology, Lagos State Laboratory Services Lagos Island General Hospital, Nigeria Paul Sunday Ogunro Paul Sunday Ogunro Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria +80-33061119, ogunrops@yahoo.com; Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria +80-33061119, ogunrops@yahoo.com Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria +80-33061119, ogunrops@yahoo.com; Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria +80-33061119, ogunrops@yahoo.com Gabriel Folorunsho Elusanmi Gabriel Folorunsho Elusanmi Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicne, Ogun State University, Nigeria Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicne, Ogun State University, Nigeria Olugbemiga Ebenezer Ogunyemi Olugbemiga Ebenezer Ogunyemi Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicne, Ogun State University, Nigeria Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicne, Ogun State University, Nigeria Abidemi Abibat Bolarinde Abidemi Abibat Bolarinde Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Center, Owo, Ngeria Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Center, Owo, Ngeria
en 10.5812/ijem.6529 Temporal Changes in Plasma Concentration of Leptin, IGF-1, Insulin and Metabolites Under Extended Fasting and Re-Feeding Conditions in Growing Lambs Temporal Changes in Plasma Concentration of Leptin, IGF-1, Insulin and Metabolites Under Extended Fasting and Re-Feeding Conditions in Growing Lambs research-article research-article Background

A fall in plasma concentration of energy status related hormones (leptin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin) and body energy expenditure occurs in response to short term fasting. Nevertheless, the relations of the fasting-induced changes in energy related hormones and metabolites with fasting energy expenditure (FEE) under extended fasting condition have received little attention so far.

Objectives

It is not clear how energy status related hormones coordinate to cope with feed deprivation under extended fasting time conditions and how quickly these hormones re-bound to fed-state values in response to re-feeding. Thus the objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the effects of extended fasting on plasma concentration of leptin, IGF-1, insulin, glucose, NEFA, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) and urea; and 2) to study the relations of energy status related hormones with FEE and substrate oxidations under extended fasting conditions.

Materials and Methods

Eighteen six-month-old growing lambs (9 females and 9 males) were fasted for three days. Blood samples were taken one hour before (-1H) and 48 and 72 hours after fasting (48H and 72H) and two hours after re-feeding (+2H) from jugular vein. During the last 22 hours of fasting, gas exchange (CO2 production and O2 consumption) were measured using an open-circuit indirect calorimeter. Respiratory quotient (RQ), FEE and relative proportions of oxidized protein, fat and carbohydrate were calculated.

Results

Plasma levels of leptin, insulin, IGF-1 and glucose decreased but NEFA and urea levels increased within 48H of fasting. Concentration of insulin significantly increased with extended fasting while leptin and IGF-1 levels remained constant. Glucose was the only blood variable that showed a quick re-bound within two hours after re-feeding. Leptin and IGF-1 showed significant positive relations with glucose and BOHB but negative relations with NEFA and Urea. Carbohydrate, fat and proteins contributed to 17%, 61% and 22% of FEE respectively in three-day-fasted lambs. FEE was negatively correlated with insulin and NEFA concentrations in plasma.

Conclusions

Even though plasma levels of leptin and IGF-1 decreased and remained constant under extended fasting, neither leptin nor IGF1 re-bounded to fed-status values within two hours after re-feeding. Under extended fasting condition, firstly an insulin resistance develops and secondly, a fall in FEE through a switch from carbohydrate- to fat-based metabolism occurs and there is an evident negative correlation between FEE and plasma concentration of NEFA.

Background

A fall in plasma concentration of energy status related hormones (leptin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin) and body energy expenditure occurs in response to short term fasting. Nevertheless, the relations of the fasting-induced changes in energy related hormones and metabolites with fasting energy expenditure (FEE) under extended fasting condition have received little attention so far.

Objectives

It is not clear how energy status related hormones coordinate to cope with feed deprivation under extended fasting time conditions and how quickly these hormones re-bound to fed-state values in response to re-feeding. Thus the objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the effects of extended fasting on plasma concentration of leptin, IGF-1, insulin, glucose, NEFA, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) and urea; and 2) to study the relations of energy status related hormones with FEE and substrate oxidations under extended fasting conditions.

Materials and Methods

Eighteen six-month-old growing lambs (9 females and 9 males) were fasted for three days. Blood samples were taken one hour before (-1H) and 48 and 72 hours after fasting (48H and 72H) and two hours after re-feeding (+2H) from jugular vein. During the last 22 hours of fasting, gas exchange (CO2 production and O2 consumption) were measured using an open-circuit indirect calorimeter. Respiratory quotient (RQ), FEE and relative proportions of oxidized protein, fat and carbohydrate were calculated.

Results

Plasma levels of leptin, insulin, IGF-1 and glucose decreased but NEFA and urea levels increased within 48H of fasting. Concentration of insulin significantly increased with extended fasting while leptin and IGF-1 levels remained constant. Glucose was the only blood variable that showed a quick re-bound within two hours after re-feeding. Leptin and IGF-1 showed significant positive relations with glucose and BOHB but negative relations with NEFA and Urea. Carbohydrate, fat and proteins contributed to 17%, 61% and 22% of FEE respectively in three-day-fasted lambs. FEE was negatively correlated with insulin and NEFA concentrations in plasma.

Conclusions

Even though plasma levels of leptin and IGF-1 decreased and remained constant under extended fasting, neither leptin nor IGF1 re-bounded to fed-status values within two hours after re-feeding. Under extended fasting condition, firstly an insulin resistance develops and secondly, a fall in FEE through a switch from carbohydrate- to fat-based metabolism occurs and there is an evident negative correlation between FEE and plasma concentration of NEFA.

Leptin;Insulin-Like Growth Factor I;Energy Metabolism;Sheep Leptin;Insulin-Like Growth Factor I;Energy Metabolism;Sheep 34 40 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6529 Ali Kiani Ali Kiani Animal Sciences Group, Nosutynowniww{s}|}ure, Lorestan University, IR Iran +98-4200012, arkashkia@gmail.com;kiani.a@lu.ac.ir; Animal Sciences Group, Nosutynowniww{s}|}ure, Lorestan University, IR Iran +98-4200012, arkashkia@gmail.com;kiani.a@lu.ac.ir Animal Sciences Group, Nosutynowniww{s}|}ure, Lorestan University, IR Iran +98-4200012, arkashkia@gmail.com;kiani.a@lu.ac.ir; Animal Sciences Group, Nosutynowniww{s}|}ure, Lorestan University, IR Iran +98-4200012, arkashkia@gmail.com;kiani.a@lu.ac.ir
en 10.5812/ijem.4158 Non-Contraceptive Benefits of Oral Hormonal Contraceptives Non-Contraceptive Benefits of Oral Hormonal Contraceptives review-article review-article Abstract

It is becoming evident that oral hormonal contraceptives –besides being well established contraceptives – seem to become important medications for many functional or organic disturbances. So far, clinical effectiveness has been shown for treatment as well as prevention of menstrual bleeding disorders and menstrual-related pain symptoms. Also this is true for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual disphoric disorder (PMDD).\r\nParticular oral contraceptives (OCs) containing anti-androgenic progestogens were shown to be effective medications for treatment of androgenisation symptoms (seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, alopecia).\r\nThrough perfect suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis OCs have proven to be effective in elimination of persistent follicular cysts. Endometriosis/adenomyosis related pain symptoms are well handled similar to other drugs like Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone agonists but are less expensive, with less side effects, and possibility to be used for longer periods of time. This is also true for myoma. Pelvic inflammatory disease, rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual migraine, and onset of multiple sclerosis are prevented or delayed. Bone density is preserved and asthma symptoms improved. Endometrial hyperplasia and benign breast disease can be controlled. There is definitely a significant impact on risk reduction regarding endometrial, ovarian, and colon cancers.\r\nIn conclusion, it needs to be recognized that oral combined hormonal contraceptives (estrogen/ progestogen combination) are – besides being reliable forms of contraception – are cost-effective medications for many medical disorders in women. Therefore, these contraceptives drugs are important for female and global health and should be used in clinical practice.

Abstract

It is becoming evident that oral hormonal contraceptives –besides being well established contraceptives – seem to become important medications for many functional or organic disturbances. So far, clinical effectiveness has been shown for treatment as well as prevention of menstrual bleeding disorders and menstrual-related pain symptoms. Also this is true for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual disphoric disorder (PMDD).\r\nParticular oral contraceptives (OCs) containing anti-androgenic progestogens were shown to be effective medications for treatment of androgenisation symptoms (seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, alopecia).\r\nThrough perfect suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis OCs have proven to be effective in elimination of persistent follicular cysts. Endometriosis/adenomyosis related pain symptoms are well handled similar to other drugs like Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone agonists but are less expensive, with less side effects, and possibility to be used for longer periods of time. This is also true for myoma. Pelvic inflammatory disease, rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual migraine, and onset of multiple sclerosis are prevented or delayed. Bone density is preserved and asthma symptoms improved. Endometrial hyperplasia and benign breast disease can be controlled. There is definitely a significant impact on risk reduction regarding endometrial, ovarian, and colon cancers.\r\nIn conclusion, it needs to be recognized that oral combined hormonal contraceptives (estrogen/ progestogen combination) are – besides being reliable forms of contraception – are cost-effective medications for many medical disorders in women. Therefore, these contraceptives drugs are important for female and global health and should be used in clinical practice.

Contraceptives;Oral;Hormonal;Therapeutics;Prevention and Control Contraceptives;Oral;Hormonal;Therapeutics;Prevention and Control 41 47 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4158 Adolf E Schindler Adolf E Schindler Institute for Medical Research and Education, University Clinic, Hufelandstrasse 55, D-45147, Germany +49-2017991833, adolf.schindler@uni-due.de; Institute for Medical Research and Education, University Clinic, Hufelandstrasse 55, D-45147, Germany +49-2017991833, adolf.schindler@uni-due.de Institute for Medical Research and Education, University Clinic, Hufelandstrasse 55, D-45147, Germany +49-2017991833, adolf.schindler@uni-due.de; Institute for Medical Research and Education, University Clinic, Hufelandstrasse 55, D-45147, Germany +49-2017991833, adolf.schindler@uni-due.de
en 10.5812/ijem.6562 Acute Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Catecholamine Release Owing to Cocaine Abuse and Pheochromocytoma Crisis Acute Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Catecholamine Release Owing to Cocaine Abuse and Pheochromocytoma Crisis case-report case-report Abstract

Most pheochromocytomas are not suspected clinically while a high percentage of them are curable with surgery. We present the case of an adult cocaine-addicted male patient with an underlying pheochromocytoma and repeated myocardial infarctions. Computed tomography showed a left round adrenal mass, also high 24-hour urine levels of catecholamines and metanephrines were detected from urinalysis. The patient was given alpha and beta blockers, moreover a laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. Cocaine can block the reuptake of noradrenaline, leading to increasing its concentration and consequently its effects as well, and induce local or diffuse coronary vasoconstriction in normal coronary artery segments per se, cocaine can also trigger pheochromocytoma crisis, and therefore, cardiac complications such as myocardial infarction due to these additive effects are intended to occur. For this reason, in the presence of typical clinical manifestations of pheochromocytoma, such as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, headache, sweating, tachycardia and abdominal pain, probable association of this tumor in patients with cocaine abuse and associated cardiac complications must be ruled out.

Abstract

Most pheochromocytomas are not suspected clinically while a high percentage of them are curable with surgery. We present the case of an adult cocaine-addicted male patient with an underlying pheochromocytoma and repeated myocardial infarctions. Computed tomography showed a left round adrenal mass, also high 24-hour urine levels of catecholamines and metanephrines were detected from urinalysis. The patient was given alpha and beta blockers, moreover a laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. Cocaine can block the reuptake of noradrenaline, leading to increasing its concentration and consequently its effects as well, and induce local or diffuse coronary vasoconstriction in normal coronary artery segments per se, cocaine can also trigger pheochromocytoma crisis, and therefore, cardiac complications such as myocardial infarction due to these additive effects are intended to occur. For this reason, in the presence of typical clinical manifestations of pheochromocytoma, such as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, headache, sweating, tachycardia and abdominal pain, probable association of this tumor in patients with cocaine abuse and associated cardiac complications must be ruled out.

Pheochromocytoma;Cocaine;Myocardial Infarction Pheochromocytoma;Cocaine;Myocardial Infarction 48 51 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6562 Efren Martinez-Quintana Efren Martinez-Quintana Cardiology Werw{wmmn}ns}osrm}a|ewnovm~wi~u{mouoowu~s{}}o|owriuol Child, Maritime South Avenue s / n 35016, Spain +34-928441360, efrencardio@gmail.com; Cardiology Werw{wmmn}ns}osrm}a|ewnovm~wi~u{mouoowu~s{}}o|owriuol Child, Maritime South Avenue s / n 35016, Spain +34-928441360, efrencardio@gmail.com Cardiology Werw{wmmn}ns}osrm}a|ewnovm~wi~u{mouoowu~s{}}o|owriuol Child, Maritime South Avenue s / n 35016, Spain +34-928441360, efrencardio@gmail.com; Cardiology Werw{wmmn}ns}osrm}a|ewnovm~wi~u{mouoowu~s{}}o|owriuol Child, Maritime South Avenue s / n 35016, Spain +34-928441360, efrencardio@gmail.com Ricardo Jaimes-Vivas Ricardo Jaimes-Vivas Cardiology Werw{wmmn}ns}osrm}a|ewnovm~wi~u{mouoowu~s{}}o|owriuol Child, Maritime South Avenue s / n 35016, Spain +34-928441360, efrencardio@gmail.com Cardiology Werw{wmmn}ns}osrm}a|ewnovm~wi~u{mouoowu~s{}}o|owriuol Child, Maritime South Avenue s / n 35016, Spain +34-928441360, efrencardio@gmail.com Javiel Cuba-Herrera Javiel Cuba-Herrera Cardiology Werw{wmmn}ns}osrm}a|ewnovm~wi~u{mouoowu~s{}}o|owriuol Child, Maritime South Avenue s / n 35016, Spain +34-928441360, efrencardio@gmail.com Cardiology Werw{wmmn}ns}osrm}a|ewnovm~wi~u{mouoowu~s{}}o|owriuol Child, Maritime South Avenue s / n 35016, Spain +34-928441360, efrencardio@gmail.com Beatriz Saiz-Udaeta Beatriz Saiz-Udaeta Cardiology Werw{wmmn}ns}osrm}a|ewnovm~wi~u{mouoowu~s{}}o|owriuol Child, Maritime South Avenue s / n 35016, Spain +34-928441360, efrencardio@gmail.com Cardiology Werw{wmmn}ns}osrm}a|ewnovm~wi~u{mouoowu~s{}}o|owriuol Child, Maritime South Avenue s / n 35016, Spain +34-928441360, efrencardio@gmail.com Fayna Rodríguez-Gonzalez Fayna Rodríguez-Gonzalez Ophtalmology Service, Dr. Negrin University Hospital of Gran Canaria, Spain Ophtalmology Service, Dr. Negrin University Hospital of Gran Canaria, Spain Maria Soledad Martinez-Martin Maria Soledad Martinez-Martin Anatomopathology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Spain Anatomopathology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Spain
en 10.5812/ijem.6898 A Novel Medical Treatment of Cushing's Due to Ectopic ACTH in a Patient With Neurofibromatosis Type 1 A Novel Medical Treatment of Cushing's Due to Ectopic ACTH in a Patient With Neurofibromatosis Type 1 case-report case-report

A 64-year-old male presented with neurofibromatosis 1 and Cushing’s syndrome. Clinically he was over weight, depressed with extensive skin bruising and hypertension. His 24 hours urinary metanephrines, urinary 5HIAA, gut peptides and chromgranin levels were normal. His renal function and renal MRI scan was also normal. His cortisol failed to suppress on overnight dexamethsone suppression test. His low dose dexamethasone suppression with CRH stimulation showed failure of suppression of cortisol to < 50 nmol/L and ACTH was measurable at 10 ng/L on day 3. There was no response of ACTH or cortisol to CRH stimulation. His ACTH precursors were high at 126 pmol/L consistent with defective pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) processing suggesting an ectopic source of ACTH production. The MRI scan of his pituitary and CT scan of the adrenal glands was normal. His octreotide scan was negative. The source of his ectopic ACTH was most likely a large retroperitoneal plexiform neurofibroma seen on CT abdomen that had undergone malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour transformation on histology. He was a poor surgical risk for tumour debulking procedure. In view of the available literature and role of c-kit signalling in neurofibromatosis, he was treated with Imitinib. Four months after the treatment his Cushings had resolved on biochemical testing. After a year his plexiform neurofibroma has not increased in size. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NF1 associated with clinical and biochemical features of Cushing’s secondary to ectopic ACTH due to MPNST in a plexiform neurofibroma and its resolution on treatment with imatinib.

A 64-year-old male presented with neurofibromatosis 1 and Cushing’s syndrome. Clinically he was over weight, depressed with extensive skin bruising and hypertension. His 24 hours urinary metanephrines, urinary 5HIAA, gut peptides and chromgranin levels were normal. His renal function and renal MRI scan was also normal. His cortisol failed to suppress on overnight dexamethsone suppression test. His low dose dexamethasone suppression with CRH stimulation showed failure of suppression of cortisol to < 50 nmol/L and ACTH was measurable at 10 ng/L on day 3. There was no response of ACTH or cortisol to CRH stimulation. His ACTH precursors were high at 126 pmol/L consistent with defective pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) processing suggesting an ectopic source of ACTH production. The MRI scan of his pituitary and CT scan of the adrenal glands was normal. His octreotide scan was negative. The source of his ectopic ACTH was most likely a large retroperitoneal plexiform neurofibroma seen on CT abdomen that had undergone malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour transformation on histology. He was a poor surgical risk for tumour debulking procedure. In view of the available literature and role of c-kit signalling in neurofibromatosis, he was treated with Imitinib. Four months after the treatment his Cushings had resolved on biochemical testing. After a year his plexiform neurofibroma has not increased in size. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NF1 associated with clinical and biochemical features of Cushing’s secondary to ectopic ACTH due to MPNST in a plexiform neurofibroma and its resolution on treatment with imatinib.

Adrenal Gland Diseases; Adrenocortical Hyperfunction Adrenal Gland Diseases; Adrenocortical Hyperfunction 52 56 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6898 Gul Bano Gul Bano Ge|mw|mwnunofmoneow~i~omogycine,d{ubguosoeawnive{so~yuootlotooeorge’s Hospital, Blackshaw Road, SW17 0QT, UK +20-87251027, gbano@sgul.ac.uk; Ge|mw|mwnunofmoneow~i~omogycine,d{ubguosoeawnive{so~yuootlotooeorge’s Hospital, Blackshaw Road, SW17 0QT, UK +20-87251027, gbano@sgul.ac.uk Ge|mw|mwnunofmoneow~i~omogycine,d{ubguosoeawnive{so~yuootlotooeorge’s Hospital, Blackshaw Road, SW17 0QT, UK +20-87251027, gbano@sgul.ac.uk; Ge|mw|mwnunofmoneow~i~omogycine,d{ubguosoeawnive{so~yuootlotooeorge’s Hospital, Blackshaw Road, SW17 0QT, UK +20-87251027, gbano@sgul.ac.uk Farheen Mir Farheen Mir Department of Paediatrics, Watford General Hospital, UK Department of Paediatrics, Watford General Hospital, UK Nigel Beharry Nigel Beharry Department of Radiology, St. George\'s Health NHS Trust, UK Department of Radiology, St. George\'s Health NHS Trust, UK Philip Wilson Philip Wilson Department of Cellular pathology, St. George\'s Healthcare NHS Trust, UK Department of Cellular pathology, St. George\'s Healthcare NHS Trust, UK Shirley Hodgson Shirley Hodgson Clinical Developmental Sciences, St George’s University of London, UK Clinical Developmental Sciences, St George’s University of London, UK Stephen Schey Stephen Schey Department of Haematology, Kings College London, SE5 9RS, UK Department of Haematology, Kings College London, SE5 9RS, UK
en 10.5812/ijem.4366 Evaluation of Serum Prolactin Levels in Intellectually Disabled Patients Using Antipsychotic Medications Evaluation of Serum Prolactin Levels in Intellectually Disabled Patients Using Antipsychotic Medications case-report case-report Background

Patients with intellectual disabilities may be treated with antipsychotic medications for a variety of diagnoses. Use of this category of medication can increase prolactin levels and place the patient at risk for sexual dysfunction and lower bone mineral density. The proposed mechanism of action is affinity for the dopamine receptor. Use of bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor antagonist, was proposed to attenuate hyperprolactinemia.\r\n

Objectives

The objectives of this study were to (1) review serum prolactin (PRL) elevations associated with the use of antipsychotic (AP) medications in an intellectually disabled adult population and (2) determine if any association existed between the level of elevation and AP used.

Patients and Methods

Medical records for adult patients at two Oklahoma facilities for the intellectually disabled were reviewed to evaluate prolactin levels for individuals prescribed antipsychotics. A linear regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between prolactin levels with intellectual disability level, bromocriptine use, demographics, and antipsychotic.

Results

73 (n = 53 males, n = 20 females) patients met criteria. The average age was 41.2 years. Nearly 70% of the patients had severe to profound levels of disability. 77% were prescribed second generation antipsychotics; 19% received first generation agents. Two variables, gender and bromocriptine use, were found to be significant predictors of prolactin levels. Mean prolactin level for females was 44 ng/mL (normal range: 4-30 ng/mL, males = 4-23 ng/mL). Patients who did not receive bromocriptine had mean levels of 23 ng/mL. No significant difference in prolactin levels was found for type of AP.

Conclusions

Mean prolactin levels for females were significantly higher than for males. Both sexes were found to have higher-than-normal levels. Use of bromocriptine was associated with higher prolactin levels. In this population of patients, the type of AP used had no significance on prolactin levels.

Background

Patients with intellectual disabilities may be treated with antipsychotic medications for a variety of diagnoses. Use of this category of medication can increase prolactin levels and place the patient at risk for sexual dysfunction and lower bone mineral density. The proposed mechanism of action is affinity for the dopamine receptor. Use of bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor antagonist, was proposed to attenuate hyperprolactinemia.\r\n

Objectives

The objectives of this study were to (1) review serum prolactin (PRL) elevations associated with the use of antipsychotic (AP) medications in an intellectually disabled adult population and (2) determine if any association existed between the level of elevation and AP used.

Patients and Methods

Medical records for adult patients at two Oklahoma facilities for the intellectually disabled were reviewed to evaluate prolactin levels for individuals prescribed antipsychotics. A linear regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between prolactin levels with intellectual disability level, bromocriptine use, demographics, and antipsychotic.

Results

73 (n = 53 males, n = 20 females) patients met criteria. The average age was 41.2 years. Nearly 70% of the patients had severe to profound levels of disability. 77% were prescribed second generation antipsychotics; 19% received first generation agents. Two variables, gender and bromocriptine use, were found to be significant predictors of prolactin levels. Mean prolactin level for females was 44 ng/mL (normal range: 4-30 ng/mL, males = 4-23 ng/mL). Patients who did not receive bromocriptine had mean levels of 23 ng/mL. No significant difference in prolactin levels was found for type of AP.

Conclusions

Mean prolactin levels for females were significantly higher than for males. Both sexes were found to have higher-than-normal levels. Use of bromocriptine was associated with higher prolactin levels. In this population of patients, the type of AP used had no significance on prolactin levels.

Prolactin;Intellectually Disabled;Antipsychotic Agents Prolactin;Intellectually Disabled;Antipsychotic Agents 57 61 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4366 Tammy L Lambert Tammy L Lambert Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma, 1110 N. Stonewall Ave., CPB 135C, USA +1-4052716878, Tammy-Lambert@ouhsc.edu; Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma, 1110 N. Stonewall Ave., CPB 135C, USA +1-4052716878, Tammy-Lambert@ouhsc.edu Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma, 1110 N. Stonewall Ave., CPB 135C, USA +1-4052716878, Tammy-Lambert@ouhsc.edu; Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma, 1110 N. Stonewall Ave., CPB 135C, USA +1-4052716878, Tammy-Lambert@ouhsc.edu Kevin C Farmer Kevin C Farmer Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma, 1110 N. Stonewall Ave., CPB 135C, USA +1-4052716878, Tammy-Lambert@ouhsc.edu Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma, 1110 N. Stonewall Ave., CPB 135C, USA +1-4052716878, Tammy-Lambert@ouhsc.edu Nancy C Brahm Nancy C Brahm Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma, 1110 N. Stonewall Ave., CPB 135C, USA +1-4052716878, Tammy-Lambert@ouhsc.edu Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma, 1110 N. Stonewall Ave., CPB 135C, USA +1-4052716878, Tammy-Lambert@ouhsc.edu