International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism Int J Endocrinol Metab http://www.endometabol.com 1726-913X 1726-9148 10.5812/ijem en jalali 2017 6 28 gregorian 2017 6 28 11 2
en Editorial board Editorial board issue-information issue-information - - http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11550
en Table of Content Table of Content issue-information issue-information - - http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11551
en 10.5812/ijem.9103 Potential Therapeutic Effects of Nitrate/Nitrite and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Potential Therapeutic Effects of Nitrate/Nitrite and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus editorial editorial Diabetes; Nitrate; Nitrite Diabetes; Nitrate; Nitrite 63 64 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=9103 Asghar Ghasemi Asghar Ghasemi Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No. 24, Parvaneh St., Velenjak , P.O. Box: 19395-4763., IR Iran +98-2122432500, zahedi@endocrine.ac.ir Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No. 24, Parvaneh St., Velenjak , P.O. Box: 19395-4763., IR Iran +98-2122432500, zahedi@endocrine.ac.ir Saleh Zahediasl Saleh Zahediasl Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No. 24, Parvaneh St., Velenjak , P.O. Box: 19395-4763., IR Iran +98-2122432500, zahedi@endocrine.ac.ir; Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No. 24, Parvaneh St., Velenjak , P.O. Box: 19395-4763., IR Iran +98-2122432500, zahedi@endocrine.ac.ir Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No. 24, Parvaneh St., Velenjak , P.O. Box: 19395-4763., IR Iran +98-2122432500, zahedi@endocrine.ac.ir; Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No. 24, Parvaneh St., Velenjak , P.O. Box: 19395-4763., IR Iran +98-2122432500, zahedi@endocrine.ac.ir
en 10.5812/ijem.5333 Associations of Estrogen and Testosterone With Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women With and Without Hormone Therapy Associations of Estrogen and Testosterone With Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women With and Without Hormone Therapy research-article research-article Results

Serum estradiol levels tended to have a negative correlation with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in premenopausal women but not in postmenopausal women. On the other hand, free testosterone levels tended to have a positive correlation with HOMA-IR in postmenopausal women but not in premenopausal women. Serum SHBG levels showed significant negative correlations with HOMA-IR in both pre- and postmenopausal women. SHBG level was significantly increased, free testosterone level was significantly decreased and HOMA-IR was significantly decreased at 12 months after CEE administration. However, there were no significant correlations of changes between estradiol, SHBG or free testosterone and HOMA-IR.

Conclusions

The associations of sex steroid hormones with insulin resistance are different depending on the estrogen status.

Background

Estrogen deficiency due to natural menopause or surgical menopause has been suggested to have an adverse effect on insulin resistance. Testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) as well as estrogen are also associated with insulin resistance in women. However, to date, the associations of estradiol, testosterone and SHBG with insulin resistance according to estrogen level have not been clarified.

Patients and Methods

Twenty premenopausal women and thirty-two postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study. Fifteen postmenopausal women received oral conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) (0.625 mg) everyday for 12 months. Serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, SHBG and insulin and plasma levels of glucose were measured.

Objectives

We examined the associations of estradiol, testosterone and SHBG with insulin resistance in pre- and in postmenopausal women and postmenopausal women who had received hormone therapy to clarify whether the associations differ depending on the estrogen status.

Results

Serum estradiol levels tended to have a negative correlation with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in premenopausal women but not in postmenopausal women. On the other hand, free testosterone levels tended to have a positive correlation with HOMA-IR in postmenopausal women but not in premenopausal women. Serum SHBG levels showed significant negative correlations with HOMA-IR in both pre- and postmenopausal women. SHBG level was significantly increased, free testosterone level was significantly decreased and HOMA-IR was significantly decreased at 12 months after CEE administration. However, there were no significant correlations of changes between estradiol, SHBG or free testosterone and HOMA-IR.

Conclusions

The associations of sex steroid hormones with insulin resistance are different depending on the estrogen status.

Background

Estrogen deficiency due to natural menopause or surgical menopause has been suggested to have an adverse effect on insulin resistance. Testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) as well as estrogen are also associated with insulin resistance in women. However, to date, the associations of estradiol, testosterone and SHBG with insulin resistance according to estrogen level have not been clarified.

Patients and Methods

Twenty premenopausal women and thirty-two postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study. Fifteen postmenopausal women received oral conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) (0.625 mg) everyday for 12 months. Serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, SHBG and insulin and plasma levels of glucose were measured.

Objectives

We examined the associations of estradiol, testosterone and SHBG with insulin resistance in pre- and in postmenopausal women and postmenopausal women who had received hormone therapy to clarify whether the associations differ depending on the estrogen status.

Estradiol;Testosterone;Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin;HOMA-IR Estradiol;Testosterone;Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin;HOMA-IR 65 70 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5333 Sumika Matsui Sumika Matsui Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Toshiyuki Yasui Toshiyuki Yasui Department of Reproductive Technology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan Department of Reproductive Technology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan Anna Tani Anna Tani Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Kotaro Kunimi Kotaro Kunimi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Hirokazu Uemura Hirokazu Uemura Department of Preventive Medicine, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan Department of Preventive Medicine, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan Satoshi Yamamoto Satoshi Yamamoto Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Akira Kuwahara Akira Kuwahara Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Toshiya Matsuzaki Toshiya Matsuzaki Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Minoru Irahara Minoru Irahara Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, wo{}y}mk}rkmuo, Japan +81-886337177, sumika87@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp
en 10.5812/ijem.8052 Anthropometry and Menarcheal Status of Adolescent Nigerian Urban Senior Secondary School Girls Anthropometry and Menarcheal Status of Adolescent Nigerian Urban Senior Secondary School Girls research-article research-article Materials and Methods

In this school-based cross-sectional survey, a pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaire was set for obtaining the socio-demographic data (age at menarche, number of siblings, occupation and educational attainment of their parents, etc.), while the anthropometric status data was obtained by direct measurement of weight and height. The body mass index (BMI) and the ponderal index (PI) of each participant were computed from their respective weight and height values. The study was designed to include all the students in the two schools that were randomly selected. The anthropometric indices of pre- and post-menarcheal girls were compared.

Results

Out of a total population of 2,166 students, 2,159 (99.7%) participated but 9 questionnaires were incompletely filled and were rejected, leaving 2,150 (510 were pre-menarcheal and 1,640 were post- menarcheal) for further analysis. The mean menarcheal age was 13.44 ± 1.32 years (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 13.38-13.5). Girls from families with high socio-economic status (SES) attained menarche 8.0 and 9.0 months earlier than their counterparts from families with middle and low SES respectively. Girls from small-size families had a significantly lower menarcheal age than their counterparts from large-size families. A comparison of the anthropometric indices of pre- and post-menarcheal girls showed: weight, 41.1 ± 6.3 kg (95% CI = 40.6-41.6) vs 47.6 ± 7.2 kg (95% CI = 47.3-47.9), P < 0.001; height, 146.2± 5.5 cm (95% CI = 145.7-146.7) vs 153.6 ± 9.9 cm (95% CI=153.1-154.1), P < 0.001; BMI, 16.4 ± 1.9 (95% CI = 16.2-16.6) vs 18.8 ± 1.6 (95% CI = 18.7-18.9), P < 0.001; and PI, 45.1 ± 1.7 (95% CI = 45.0-45.2) vs 44.6 ± 1.4 (95% CI = 44.5-44.7), P < 0.01.

Background

Age at menarche is a significant indicator of growth and sexual maturation in girls. During adolescence, anthropometry provides a tool for monitoring and evaluating the hormone-mediated changes in growth and reproductive maturation.

Conclusions

Post-menarcheal girls were significantly taller and heavier with a higher BMI than their pre-menarcheal counterparts, but the pre-menarcheal girls possessed a better linear body as reflected by the PI.

Objectives

We aimed to examine the anthropometric status of pre- and post-menarcheal Nigerian adolescent girls attending senior secondary schools.

Materials and Methods

In this school-based cross-sectional survey, a pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaire was set for obtaining the socio-demographic data (age at menarche, number of siblings, occupation and educational attainment of their parents, etc.), while the anthropometric status data was obtained by direct measurement of weight and height. The body mass index (BMI) and the ponderal index (PI) of each participant were computed from their respective weight and height values. The study was designed to include all the students in the two schools that were randomly selected. The anthropometric indices of pre- and post-menarcheal girls were compared.

Results

Out of a total population of 2,166 students, 2,159 (99.7%) participated but 9 questionnaires were incompletely filled and were rejected, leaving 2,150 (510 were pre-menarcheal and 1,640 were post- menarcheal) for further analysis. The mean menarcheal age was 13.44 ± 1.32 years (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 13.38-13.5). Girls from families with high socio-economic status (SES) attained menarche 8.0 and 9.0 months earlier than their counterparts from families with middle and low SES respectively. Girls from small-size families had a significantly lower menarcheal age than their counterparts from large-size families. A comparison of the anthropometric indices of pre- and post-menarcheal girls showed: weight, 41.1 ± 6.3 kg (95% CI = 40.6-41.6) vs 47.6 ± 7.2 kg (95% CI = 47.3-47.9), P < 0.001; height, 146.2± 5.5 cm (95% CI = 145.7-146.7) vs 153.6 ± 9.9 cm (95% CI=153.1-154.1), P < 0.001; BMI, 16.4 ± 1.9 (95% CI = 16.2-16.6) vs 18.8 ± 1.6 (95% CI = 18.7-18.9), P < 0.001; and PI, 45.1 ± 1.7 (95% CI = 45.0-45.2) vs 44.6 ± 1.4 (95% CI = 44.5-44.7), P < 0.01.

Background

Age at menarche is a significant indicator of growth and sexual maturation in girls. During adolescence, anthropometry provides a tool for monitoring and evaluating the hormone-mediated changes in growth and reproductive maturation.

Conclusions

Post-menarcheal girls were significantly taller and heavier with a higher BMI than their pre-menarcheal counterparts, but the pre-menarcheal girls possessed a better linear body as reflected by the PI.

Objectives

We aimed to examine the anthropometric status of pre- and post-menarcheal Nigerian adolescent girls attending senior secondary schools.

Body Mass Index;Height;weight;Ponderal Index;Menarche Body Mass Index;Height;weight;Ponderal Index;Menarche 71 5 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8052 Alphonsus Ndidi Onyiriuka Alphonsus Ndidi Onyiriuka Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria; Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1111, Benin City, Nigeria. Tel: +23-48186225656 Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria; Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1111, Benin City, Nigeria. Tel: +23-48186225656 Eruke Elizabeth Egbagbe Eruke Elizabeth Egbagbe
en 10.5812/ijem.8178 The Effects of Rope Training on Lymphocyte ABCA1 Expression, Plasma ApoA-I and HDL-c in Boy Adolescents The Effects of Rope Training on Lymphocyte ABCA1 Expression, Plasma ApoA-I and HDL-c in Boy Adolescents research-article research-article Conclusions

The findings of this study proved that eight-week interval endurance rope training can have positive effects on lymphocyte ABCA1 protein expression (as gatekeeper of reverse cholesterol process) and lipid profiles among overweight and obese boy adolescents.

Objective

The current study aimed to investigate ABCA1 expression in lymphocytes, plasma apolipoprotein A-I and HDL-C in response to eight-week interval endurance rope training in overweight and obese boy adolescents.

Patients and Methods

Thirty students (17.3 ± 1.1yr, 85.73 ± 11.68 kg and 28.41 ± 2.36 kg / m²) volunteered and were randomly assigned into training (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. Exercise protocol was interval endurance rope training (8 wk, 4 d/wk and 40 min/d). Cell hemolysis and sensitive Elisa method was used for Lymphocyte ABAC1 protein expression.t-test was employed.

Results

The independent-samples T-Test results showed that after 8 weeks IERT, the levels of lymphocyte ABCA1 expression(P = 0/001) and VO2max(P = 0/001) significantly increased and plasma levels of TG(P = 0.017), TC(P = 0.001), LDL-c/HDL-c(P = 0.026),TC/HDL-c(P = 0.002) and measures of BF%(P = 0/015)and BMI(P = 0.042) as anthropometric indicators significantly decreased. Changes of other variables such as increase in ApoA-I, HDL-c and decrease in LDL-c, body weight, were not significant.

Background

Early obesity and its transfer to the adulthood, increases likelihood incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) as a member of the ABC transporters family plays a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transport and CAD prevention.

Conclusions

The findings of this study proved that eight-week interval endurance rope training can have positive effects on lymphocyte ABCA1 protein expression (as gatekeeper of reverse cholesterol process) and lipid profiles among overweight and obese boy adolescents.

Objective

The current study aimed to investigate ABCA1 expression in lymphocytes, plasma apolipoprotein A-I and HDL-C in response to eight-week interval endurance rope training in overweight and obese boy adolescents.

Patients and Methods

Thirty students (17.3 ± 1.1yr, 85.73 ± 11.68 kg and 28.41 ± 2.36 kg / m²) volunteered and were randomly assigned into training (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. Exercise protocol was interval endurance rope training (8 wk, 4 d/wk and 40 min/d). Cell hemolysis and sensitive Elisa method was used for Lymphocyte ABAC1 protein expression.t-test was employed.

Results

The independent-samples T-Test results showed that after 8 weeks IERT, the levels of lymphocyte ABCA1 expression(P = 0/001) and VO2max(P = 0/001) significantly increased and plasma levels of TG(P = 0.017), TC(P = 0.001), LDL-c/HDL-c(P = 0.026),TC/HDL-c(P = 0.002) and measures of BF%(P = 0/015)and BMI(P = 0.042) as anthropometric indicators significantly decreased. Changes of other variables such as increase in ApoA-I, HDL-c and decrease in LDL-c, body weight, were not significant.

Background

Early obesity and its transfer to the adulthood, increases likelihood incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) as a member of the ABC transporters family plays a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transport and CAD prevention.

ABCA1;Apolipoprotein A-I;Rope Training;Overweight and Obese Boy Adolescents ABCA1;Apolipoprotein A-I;Rope Training;Overweight and Obese Boy Adolescents 76 81 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8178 Bahloul Ghorbanian Bahloul Ghorbanian Physical Education and Sports Sciences Department, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, IR Iran; Physical Education and Sports Sciences Department, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4113845129; Fax:+98-4124327534 Physical Education and Sports Sciences Department, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, IR Iran; Physical Education and Sports Sciences Department, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4113845129; Fax:+98-4124327534 Aliasghar Ravassi Aliasghar Ravassi Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, IR Iran Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Reza Kordi Mohammad Reza Kordi Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, IR Iran Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, IR Iran Mahdi Hedayati Mahdi Hedayati Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.8744 Adipose Tissue Characteristics Related to Weight Z-Score in Childhood Adipose Tissue Characteristics Related to Weight Z-Score in Childhood research-article research-article Results

The results showed that children with a higher weight Z-score spend more time in sedentary activities and less time running or involved in active games. SCD-1 activity index, arachidonic/linoleic index, and adipocyte volume were significantly higher in children with a weight Z-score greater than 0. The preadipocyte number and the genetic expression of the studied genes did not differ between the groups. A multiple regression analysis was done to determine which variables were related to the weight Z-score. R2 values indicated that the model which included adipocyte volume, SREBP-1c, SCD-1 expression, and activity index, predicted 59% of the variability in the weight Z-score among the children. The main variables associated with adipocyte volume were PPARγ, Adiponectin, CB1R expressions, as well as the SCD-1 activity and normalized weight.

Background

Childhood obesity has grown very fast over recent decades and now it represents a serious public health problem. The number of adipocytes is set in childhood and adolescence and then, an effective understanding of the development of adipose tissue during these periods will help in the prevention of this pathology.

Objectives

The current study aimed to determine which adipose tissue characteristics are related to a high weight Z-score in childhood.

Patients and Methods

The current study included 82 children aged 5-130 months who underwent inguinal hernia surgery. Anthropometric variables were measured, and a nutritional and physical activity questionnaire was completed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples, taken during the operation, were analyzed for preadipocyte number, adipocyte volume, fatty acid composition (gas chromatography of FAME), and relative gene expression of various genes (real time PCR).

Conclusions

It was concluded that in childhood, the weight Z-score is related to adipocyte volume and adipose tissue gene expression.

Results

The results showed that children with a higher weight Z-score spend more time in sedentary activities and less time running or involved in active games. SCD-1 activity index, arachidonic/linoleic index, and adipocyte volume were significantly higher in children with a weight Z-score greater than 0. The preadipocyte number and the genetic expression of the studied genes did not differ between the groups. A multiple regression analysis was done to determine which variables were related to the weight Z-score. R2 values indicated that the model which included adipocyte volume, SREBP-1c, SCD-1 expression, and activity index, predicted 59% of the variability in the weight Z-score among the children. The main variables associated with adipocyte volume were PPARγ, Adiponectin, CB1R expressions, as well as the SCD-1 activity and normalized weight.

Background

Childhood obesity has grown very fast over recent decades and now it represents a serious public health problem. The number of adipocytes is set in childhood and adolescence and then, an effective understanding of the development of adipose tissue during these periods will help in the prevention of this pathology.

Objectives

The current study aimed to determine which adipose tissue characteristics are related to a high weight Z-score in childhood.

Patients and Methods

The current study included 82 children aged 5-130 months who underwent inguinal hernia surgery. Anthropometric variables were measured, and a nutritional and physical activity questionnaire was completed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples, taken during the operation, were analyzed for preadipocyte number, adipocyte volume, fatty acid composition (gas chromatography of FAME), and relative gene expression of various genes (real time PCR).

Conclusions

It was concluded that in childhood, the weight Z-score is related to adipocyte volume and adipose tissue gene expression.

Adipose Tissue;Adipocyte;Adipokines;PPAR gamma;Adiponectin Adipose Tissue;Adipocyte;Adipokines;PPAR gamma;Adiponectin 82 7 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8744 Juan Jesus Haro-Mora Juan Jesus Haro-Mora Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain; Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226 Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain; Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226 Eva Garcia-Escobar Eva Garcia-Escobar Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Nuria Porras Nuria Porras Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Dolores Alcazar Dolores Alcazar Maternal and Child Hospital of Malaga, Pediatric Surgery Department, Malaga, Spain Maternal and Child Hospital of Malaga, Pediatric Surgery Department, Malaga, Spain Joaquin Gaztambide Joaquin Gaztambide Maternal and Child Hospital of Malaga, Pediatric Surgery Department, Malaga, Spain Maternal and Child Hospital of Malaga, Pediatric Surgery Department, Malaga, Spain Antonio Ruiz-Orpez Antonio Ruiz-Orpez Maternal and Child Hospital of Malaga, Pediatric Surgery Department, Malaga, Spain Maternal and Child Hospital of Malaga, Pediatric Surgery Department, Malaga, Spain Sara Garcia-Serrano Sara Garcia-Serrano Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Juan M. Gomez-Zumaquero Juan M. Gomez-Zumaquero Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBEROBN, CB06/03/0060 Malaga, Spain Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBEROBN, CB06/03/0060 Malaga, Spain Juan P Lopez-Siguero Juan P Lopez-Siguero Maternal and Child Hospital of Malaga, Pediatric endocrinology Department, Spain Maternal and Child Hospital of Malaga, Pediatric endocrinology Department, Spain Federico Soriguer Federico Soriguer Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Gemma Rojo-Martinez Gemma Rojo-Martinez Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain Sesmoscha}abostovyl,henlow~inooo}nundcow}~i|o~ite|mrwmwo|,hwsmusohplmb{qtr}mlmgmmgs|a{~ain , +34-951290226; Health Institute Carlos III, CIBERDEM, CB07/08/0019, Malaga, Spain
en 10.5812/ijem.9602 The Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Physical Activity on Body Composition, Serum Osmolarity Levels and Some Parameters of Electrolytes in Females The Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Physical Activity on Body Composition, Serum Osmolarity Levels and Some Parameters of Electrolytes in Females research-article research-article Conclusions

According to this result, regular exercise in case of fasting in Ramadan led to some changes in serum osmolarity index, electrolytes and water. Therefore, it is important for female athletes to consider applying a suitable nutritious diet and sufficient water consumption during Ramadan

Results

The mean differences were as follows: significant weight loss, BMI, WHR, in two groups at the end of Ramadan (P < 0.05). The mean of weight, BMI, WHR, body fat, protein, mineral and total water showed no difference between groups (P > 0.05). Potassium, creatinine, urea and uric acid had been decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.05). Variance between groups was significant only in variable urea (P < 0.05). Variations within group had been changed in FBS; sodium, phosphorus and osmolarity levels were not changed significantly.

Background

So far, there have been a few and incoherent results about the effects of physical activities. Fasting in Ramadan has an effect on the level of osmolarity and the concentration of serum electrolytes both in active and inactive females.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to observe the changes of serum electrolytes and osmolarity levels according to regular exercise during fasting.

Patients and Methods

Twenty two healthy females who were elected by convenience sampling method were divided into two groups: 1) fasting + exercise (FE; n = 11) and 2) fasting + non exercise (FNE; n = 15). The FE group participated in aerobic training for four sessions per week during the fasting. All measurements were done once before the first day, on the second week, on the fourth week and two weeks after fasting month and these measures were used to analyze test results.

Conclusions

According to this result, regular exercise in case of fasting in Ramadan led to some changes in serum osmolarity index, electrolytes and water. Therefore, it is important for female athletes to consider applying a suitable nutritious diet and sufficient water consumption during Ramadan

Results

The mean differences were as follows: significant weight loss, BMI, WHR, in two groups at the end of Ramadan (P < 0.05). The mean of weight, BMI, WHR, body fat, protein, mineral and total water showed no difference between groups (P > 0.05). Potassium, creatinine, urea and uric acid had been decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.05). Variance between groups was significant only in variable urea (P < 0.05). Variations within group had been changed in FBS; sodium, phosphorus and osmolarity levels were not changed significantly.

Background

So far, there have been a few and incoherent results about the effects of physical activities. Fasting in Ramadan has an effect on the level of osmolarity and the concentration of serum electrolytes both in active and inactive females.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to observe the changes of serum electrolytes and osmolarity levels according to regular exercise during fasting.

Patients and Methods

Twenty two healthy females who were elected by convenience sampling method were divided into two groups: 1) fasting + exercise (FE; n = 11) and 2) fasting + non exercise (FNE; n = 15). The FE group participated in aerobic training for four sessions per week during the fasting. All measurements were done once before the first day, on the second week, on the fourth week and two weeks after fasting month and these measures were used to analyze test results.

Fasting;Osmolar Concentration;Serum Fasting;Osmolar Concentration;Serum 88 94 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=9602 Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini Sport Physiology Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran Sport Physiology Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran Mohammad Ali Sardar Mohammad Ali Sardar Department of General Courses, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of General Courses, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9153176845, Fax: +98-5118830207 Department of General Courses, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of General Courses, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9153176845, Fax: +98-5118830207 Keyvan Hejazi Keyvan Hejazi Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran Samaneh Farahati Samaneh Farahati Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.8438 Liver and Plasma Nesfatin-1 Responses to 6 Weeks of Treadmill Running With or Without Zizyphus Jujuba Liquid Extraction in Female Rat Liver and Plasma Nesfatin-1 Responses to 6 Weeks of Treadmill Running With or Without Zizyphus Jujuba Liquid Extraction in Female Rat research-article research-article Background

Nesfatin-1 is a protein derived from a precursor molecule of the nucleobindin-2 gene, and acts as an anorexigenic peptide on food intake behavior, and its level isinfluenced by nutritional status, food composition [fat and carbohydrate (CHO)], and physical exercise.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of treadmill running (at high intensity) program with and without zizyphus jujuba (high carbohydrate content) crud extraction on liver nesfatin-1, ATP, glycogen, and its plasma concentrations in female rats.

Conclusions

The Findings indicate that higher liver nesfatin-1 and glycogen content by ZJ extraction might be due to the ZJ high CHO content, and it could be consideredas an anti-appetite herb.

Materials and Methods

Twenty-eight Wistar female rats (6-8 weeks old100-120 g of weight) were randomly assigned to saline-control (SC), saline-training (ST), zizyphus jujuba-control (ZJC), and zizyphus jujuba-training (ZJT) groups. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at 35 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Animals received ZJ extraction and saline at the dose of 1.25mL/100g of body weight. Seventy-two hours after the last training session rats were killed, a portion of liver excited, and plasma was collected for nesfatin-1, ATP, and glycogen measurements. A one-way ANOVA method, and Pearson correlation were employed. P < 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results

A higher and significant liver nesfatin-1 level was found in ZJ groups (p < 0.005), but plasma nesfatin-1 responded differently. Changes in liver nesfatin-1 were accompanied with an increase in liver glycogen,but not ATP contents.

Background

Nesfatin-1 is a protein derived from a precursor molecule of the nucleobindin-2 gene, and acts as an anorexigenic peptide on food intake behavior, and its level isinfluenced by nutritional status, food composition [fat and carbohydrate (CHO)], and physical exercise.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of treadmill running (at high intensity) program with and without zizyphus jujuba (high carbohydrate content) crud extraction on liver nesfatin-1, ATP, glycogen, and its plasma concentrations in female rats.

Conclusions

The Findings indicate that higher liver nesfatin-1 and glycogen content by ZJ extraction might be due to the ZJ high CHO content, and it could be consideredas an anti-appetite herb.

Materials and Methods

Twenty-eight Wistar female rats (6-8 weeks old100-120 g of weight) were randomly assigned to saline-control (SC), saline-training (ST), zizyphus jujuba-control (ZJC), and zizyphus jujuba-training (ZJT) groups. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at 35 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Animals received ZJ extraction and saline at the dose of 1.25mL/100g of body weight. Seventy-two hours after the last training session rats were killed, a portion of liver excited, and plasma was collected for nesfatin-1, ATP, and glycogen measurements. A one-way ANOVA method, and Pearson correlation were employed. P < 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results

A higher and significant liver nesfatin-1 level was found in ZJ groups (p < 0.005), but plasma nesfatin-1 responded differently. Changes in liver nesfatin-1 were accompanied with an increase in liver glycogen,but not ATP contents.

Endurance Training;Nesfatin-1;Zizyphus Jujuba Endurance Training;Nesfatin-1;Zizyphus Jujuba 95 101 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8438 Abbass Ghanbari Niaki Abbass Ghanbari Niaki Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandarn, Baboulsar, IR Iran; Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Mazandarn, Baboulsar, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9111256292, Fax: +98-112532202 Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandarn, Baboulsar, IR Iran; Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Mazandarn, Baboulsar, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9111256292, Fax: +98-112532202 Fatemeh Mohammadi Joojadeh Fatemeh Mohammadi Joojadeh Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandarn, Baboulsar, IR Iran Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandarn, Baboulsar, IR Iran Navabeh Zare Kookandeh Navabeh Zare Kookandeh Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandarn, Baboulsar, IR Iran Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandarn, Baboulsar, IR Iran Safar Najafi Safar Najafi Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandarn, Baboulsar, IR Iran Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandarn, Baboulsar, IR Iran Mohammad Javad Chaichi Mohammad Javad Chaichi Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Mazandarn University, Baboulsar, IR Iran Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Mazandarn University, Baboulsar, IR Iran Fatemeh Rodbari Fatemeh Rodbari Department of cell and molecular biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandran, Baboulsar, IR Iran Department of cell and molecular biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandran, Baboulsar, IR Iran Hasan Bayat Hasan Bayat Sina Laboratory, Mazandaran, Ghaemshahr, IR Iran Sina Laboratory, Mazandaran, Ghaemshahr, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.5014 Mid-Trimester Maternal Serum hCG and Alpha Fetal Protein Levels: Clinical Significance and Prediction of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Mid-Trimester Maternal Serum hCG and Alpha Fetal Protein Levels: Clinical Significance and Prediction of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome review-article review-article Context

Maternal serum human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and Alpha Fetal Protein (AFP) were originally introduced to detect trisomy 21 and neural tube defects. However, in the absence of aneuploidy or neural tube defects, mid-trimester maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies with unexplained mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP, are at increased risk for pregnancy complications resulting from placental insufficiency.

Evidence Acquisition

Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG>2.5 MoM associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death(IUFD). Mid-trimester maternal serum AFP levels >2.5 MoM are thought to reflect a defect in placentation and associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD.

Results

Combined mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and AFP levels suggest a more complex type of placental pathology. They have stronger association with pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD.

Conclusions

Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG or AFP levels alone cannot detect all pregnant women with increased risk to develop pregnancy complications. Multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester (maternal serum hCG and AFP screening, uterine artery Doppler and placental morphology) may allow us to identify women with increased risk to develop severe placental insufficiency and pregnancy complications. However, future prospective studies are needed to confirm the prognostic significance of multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester.

Context

Maternal serum human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and Alpha Fetal Protein (AFP) were originally introduced to detect trisomy 21 and neural tube defects. However, in the absence of aneuploidy or neural tube defects, mid-trimester maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies with unexplained mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP, are at increased risk for pregnancy complications resulting from placental insufficiency.

Evidence Acquisition

Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG>2.5 MoM associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death(IUFD). Mid-trimester maternal serum AFP levels >2.5 MoM are thought to reflect a defect in placentation and associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD.

Results

Combined mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and AFP levels suggest a more complex type of placental pathology. They have stronger association with pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD.

Conclusions

Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG or AFP levels alone cannot detect all pregnant women with increased risk to develop pregnancy complications. Multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester (maternal serum hCG and AFP screening, uterine artery Doppler and placental morphology) may allow us to identify women with increased risk to develop severe placental insufficiency and pregnancy complications. However, future prospective studies are needed to confirm the prognostic significance of multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester.

Maternal Serum Screening Tests;Chorionic Gonadotropin;AFP;Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Maternal Serum Screening Tests;Chorionic Gonadotropin;AFP;Adverse Pregnancy Outcome 102 6 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5014 Georgios Androutsopoulos Georgios Androutsopoulos Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras, Medical School, Rion, Greece; Nikolaou Apostoli 21, Patra, 26332, Greece , +30-2613604010 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras, Medical School, Rion, Greece; Nikolaou Apostoli 21, Patra, 26332, Greece , +30-2613604010 Panagiotis Gkogkos Panagiotis Gkogkos Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras, Medical School, Rion, Greece Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras, Medical School, Rion, Greece Georgios Decavalas Georgios Decavalas Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras, Medical School, Rion, Greece Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras, Medical School, Rion, Greece
en 10.5812/ijem.5034 GnRH Analogues in the Prevention of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome GnRH Analogues in the Prevention of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome review-article review-article Abstract

The GnRH analogue (agonist and antagonist GnRH) changed ovarian stimulation. On the one hand, it improved chances of pregnancy to obtain more oocytes and better embryos. This leads to an ovarian hyper-response, which can be complicated by the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). On the other hand, the GnRH analogue can prevent the incidence of OHSS: GnRH antagonist protocols, GnRH agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation, either together or separately, coasting, and the GnRH analogue may prove useful for avoiding OHSS in high-risk patients. We review these topics in this article.

Abstract

The GnRH analogue (agonist and antagonist GnRH) changed ovarian stimulation. On the one hand, it improved chances of pregnancy to obtain more oocytes and better embryos. This leads to an ovarian hyper-response, which can be complicated by the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). On the other hand, the GnRH analogue can prevent the incidence of OHSS: GnRH antagonist protocols, GnRH agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation, either together or separately, coasting, and the GnRH analogue may prove useful for avoiding OHSS in high-risk patients. We review these topics in this article.

Ovarian Stimulation;Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome;Prevention;GnRH Agonist;GnRH Antagonist Ovarian Stimulation;Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome;Prevention;GnRH Agonist;GnRH Antagonist 107 16 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5034 Pilar Alama Pilar Alama Department of Reproduction, IVI-Valencia, Plaza de la Policia Local, Valencia, Spain Department of Reproduction, IVI-Valencia, Plaza de la Policia Local, Valencia, Spain Jose Bellver Jose Bellver Department of Reproduction, IVI-Valencia, Plaza de la Policia Local, Valencia, Spain; Department of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine. University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain Department of Reproduction, IVI-Valencia, Plaza de la Policia Local, Valencia, Spain; Department of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine. University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain Carmen Vidal Carmen Vidal Department of Reproduction, IVI-Valencia, Plaza de la Policia Local, Valencia, Spain Department of Reproduction, IVI-Valencia, Plaza de la Policia Local, Valencia, Spain Juan Giles Juan Giles Department of Reproduction, IVI-Valencia, Plaza de la Policia Local, Valencia, Spain; Department of Reproduction, Valencia Infertility Institute, Plaza de la Policia Local 3, Valencia 46015, Spain. Tel: +34-963050900 Department of Reproduction, IVI-Valencia, Plaza de la Policia Local, Valencia, Spain; Department of Reproduction, Valencia Infertility Institute, Plaza de la Policia Local 3, Valencia 46015, Spain. Tel: +34-963050900
en 10.5812/ijem.5374 Sudden Cardiac Death As a Result of Neglected Hypopituitarism Sudden Cardiac Death As a Result of Neglected Hypopituitarism case-report case-report

Cardiac involvement infrequently occurs in hypopituitarism, and lethal cardiac arrhythmias are rarely reported. We present a middle age female who died as a consequence of refractory ventricular arrhythmia whose medical history and previous laboratory investigation were consistent with hypopituitarism. We conclude that hypopituitarism may lead to electrocardiographic changes and malignant ventricular arrhythmia and should be included in laboratory investigation and differential diagnosis of patients presenting with long QT syndrome

Cardiac involvement infrequently occurs in hypopituitarism, and lethal cardiac arrhythmias are rarely reported. We present a middle age female who died as a consequence of refractory ventricular arrhythmia whose medical history and previous laboratory investigation were consistent with hypopituitarism. We conclude that hypopituitarism may lead to electrocardiographic changes and malignant ventricular arrhythmia and should be included in laboratory investigation and differential diagnosis of patients presenting with long QT syndrome

Hypopituitarism;Electrocardiographic Changes;QT prolongation;Polymorphic ventricular Tachycardia Hypopituitarism;Electrocardiographic Changes;QT prolongation;Polymorphic ventricular Tachycardia 117 9 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5374 Farhad Hajsheikholeslami Farhad Hajsheikholeslami Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran, IR Iran; Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-212243250 Fax: +98-2122416264 Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran, IR Iran; Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-212243250 Fax: +98-2122416264 Shahrooz Yazdani Shahrooz Yazdani Department of Cardiology, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran, IR Iran Department of Cardiology, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.6927 Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor Presenting As Right Sided Heart Failure Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor Presenting As Right Sided Heart Failure case-report case-report

Carcinoid tumor is a slow-growing type of neuroendocrine tumor, originating in the enterochromaffin cells and secreting mainly serotonin. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, hormone levels, radiological and nuclear imaging, and histological confirmation. The clinical symptoms are characterized by flushing, diarrhea, abdominal pain, telangiectasia and/or bronchoconstriction. However, most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis because the clinic goes unnoticed or are ascribed to other abdominal conditions. We report the clinical symptoms, hormone levels, radiological and nuclear imaging, histological diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of a 44-year-old female patient with congestive heart failure secondary to carcinoid heart disease in the context of liver metastases of an ileum carcinoid tumor.

Carcinoid tumor is a slow-growing type of neuroendocrine tumor, originating in the enterochromaffin cells and secreting mainly serotonin. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, hormone levels, radiological and nuclear imaging, and histological confirmation. The clinical symptoms are characterized by flushing, diarrhea, abdominal pain, telangiectasia and/or bronchoconstriction. However, most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis because the clinic goes unnoticed or are ascribed to other abdominal conditions. We report the clinical symptoms, hormone levels, radiological and nuclear imaging, histological diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of a 44-year-old female patient with congestive heart failure secondary to carcinoid heart disease in the context of liver metastases of an ileum carcinoid tumor.

Carcinoid;Neuroendocrine;Heart Failure, Tricuspide Valve;Serotonin;Octreotide Carcinoid;Neuroendocrine;Heart Failure, Tricuspide Valve;Serotonin;Octreotide 120 125 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6927 Efren Martinez-Quintana Efren Martinez-Quintana Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular-Materno Infantil. Avda. Marítima del Sur s/n. 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Tel: +34-928373050 Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular-Materno Infantil. Avda. Marítima del Sur s/n. 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Tel: +34-928373050 Maria Del Mar Avila-Gonzalez Maria Del Mar Avila-Gonzalez Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Laura Suarez-Castellano Laura Suarez-Castellano Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Fayna Rodriguez-Gonzalez Fayna Rodriguez-Gonzalez Ophthalmology Service, Dr. Negrin University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Ophthalmology Service, Dr. Negrin University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
en 10.5812/ijem.7183 Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Precipitating Factor for Perioperative Diabetic Ketoacidosis Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Precipitating Factor for Perioperative Diabetic Ketoacidosis case-report case-report

Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) is a common disease entity in patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is not only one of the major complications of Diabetes Mellitus but also a significant challenging clinical entity for the patients undergoing any elective or emergency surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) being done in a patient with DKA has not been reported. We are presenting a rare case with DKA in whom CABG was carried out in a hospital devoted exclusively to cardiac cases. Insulin was given in very large doses as a part of therapeutic regimen and the outcome was favorable. This report concludes that if a patient undergoing urgent cardiac surgery incidentally develops DKA after induction of anesthesia, then the operation can be carried out provided DKA is managed aggressively. Also, major stress factors like cardio pulmonary bypass (CPB) and hypothermia should be avoided and care should be taken to avoid cerebral edema.

Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) is a common disease entity in patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is not only one of the major complications of Diabetes Mellitus but also a significant challenging clinical entity for the patients undergoing any elective or emergency surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) being done in a patient with DKA has not been reported. We are presenting a rare case with DKA in whom CABG was carried out in a hospital devoted exclusively to cardiac cases. Insulin was given in very large doses as a part of therapeutic regimen and the outcome was favorable. This report concludes that if a patient undergoing urgent cardiac surgery incidentally develops DKA after induction of anesthesia, then the operation can be carried out provided DKA is managed aggressively. Also, major stress factors like cardio pulmonary bypass (CPB) and hypothermia should be avoided and care should be taken to avoid cerebral edema.

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting;Diabetes Mellitus;Diabetic Ketoacidosis;Insulin Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting;Diabetes Mellitus;Diabetic Ketoacidosis;Insulin 126 8 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7183 Vishal Sehgal Vishal Sehgal Regional Hospital of Scranton, The Commonwealth Medical College Scranton, PA, USA Regional Hospital of Scranton, The Commonwealth Medical College Scranton, PA, USA Sukhminder jit Singh Bajwa Sukhminder jit Singh Bajwa Wu{i}oeov ootaiow|hgskmog}eqovtmo~unovencesulewionowyga~dmmn}goiwoloewe,aomanswivammdkco}roo|muoelandp}o{qk|amnd{am Nagar, Banur, Punjab, House No-27-A, Ratan Nagar, Tripuri, PIN-147001, Patiala, India , +99-15025828; Wu{i}oeov ootaiow|hgskmog}eqovtmo~unovencesulewionowyga~dmmn}goiwoloewe,aomanswivammdkco}roo|muoelandp}o{qk|amnd{am Nagar, Banur, Punjab, House No-27-A, Ratan Nagar, Tripuri, PIN-147001, Patiala, India , +99-15025828 Wu{i}oeov ootaiow|hgskmog}eqovtmo~unovencesulewionowyga~dmmn}goiwoloewe,aomanswivammdkco}roo|muoelandp}o{qk|amnd{am Nagar, Banur, Punjab, House No-27-A, Ratan Nagar, Tripuri, PIN-147001, Patiala, India , +99-15025828; Wu{i}oeov ootaiow|hgskmog}eqovtmo~unovencesulewionowyga~dmmn}goiwoloewe,aomanswivammdkco}roo|muoelandp}o{qk|amnd{am Nagar, Banur, Punjab, House No-27-A, Ratan Nagar, Tripuri, PIN-147001, Patiala, India , +99-15025828 Abbas Kitabchi Abbas Kitabchi Department of Medicine and Endocrinology, A202 Coleman College of Medicine Building, Court Avenue, Memphis TN, USA Department of Medicine and Endocrinology, A202 Coleman College of Medicine Building, Court Avenue, Memphis TN, USA