International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism Int J Endocrinol Metab http://www.endometabol.com 1726-913X 1726-9148 10.5812/ijem en jalali 2017 5 30 gregorian 2017 5 30 11 4
en 10.5812/ijem.7945 Health-Related Quality of Life of Diabetic Patients in Tehran Health-Related Quality of Life of Diabetic Patients in Tehran research-article research-article Background

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important factor for self-management behaviors of diabetic patients. These behaviors have special importance in preventing complications of diabetes.

Objectives

This study has been conducted to evaluate HRQoL of diabetic patients referred to Tehran hospitals.

Patients and Methods

In this descriptive study patients were selected from diabetes clinics of general hospitals in Tehran. A demographic and disease characteristics questionnaire and short-form of health survey (SF-36) were used for the data collection. The data were analyzed with SPSS software.

Results

140 diabetic patients with average age of 47.3 ± 12.7 years participated in this study. The range of HRQoL scores in different domains varied from 46.2 ± 13 for general health perceptions to 64.1 ± 26.6 for physical functioning. There were significant differences according to age, sex, educational level, type of diabetes, type of treatment, and different HRQoL dimensions.

Conclusions

HRQoL of diabetic patients is related to several variables. Considering of variables will be important for improving HRQoL of diabetic patients.

Background

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important factor for self-management behaviors of diabetic patients. These behaviors have special importance in preventing complications of diabetes.

Objectives

This study has been conducted to evaluate HRQoL of diabetic patients referred to Tehran hospitals.

Patients and Methods

In this descriptive study patients were selected from diabetes clinics of general hospitals in Tehran. A demographic and disease characteristics questionnaire and short-form of health survey (SF-36) were used for the data collection. The data were analyzed with SPSS software.

Results

140 diabetic patients with average age of 47.3 ± 12.7 years participated in this study. The range of HRQoL scores in different domains varied from 46.2 ± 13 for general health perceptions to 64.1 ± 26.6 for physical functioning. There were significant differences according to age, sex, educational level, type of diabetes, type of treatment, and different HRQoL dimensions.

Conclusions

HRQoL of diabetic patients is related to several variables. Considering of variables will be important for improving HRQoL of diabetic patients.

Diabetes; Health-Related Quality of Life; Health Status Diabetes; Health-Related Quality of Life; Health Status http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7945 Ali Darvishpoor Kakhki Ali Darvishpoor Kakhki Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel:+98-2188202511, Fax:+98-21-88202521 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel:+98-2188202511, Fax:+98-21-88202521 Zilla Abed saeedi Zilla Abed saeedi Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.8568 Plasma Acylated Ghrelin Response to One Session Circuit Resistance Exercise in Fasted and High Carbohydrate Meal in Healthy Young Men Plasma Acylated Ghrelin Response to One Session Circuit Resistance Exercise in Fasted and High Carbohydrate Meal in Healthy Young Men research-article research-article Background

Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide, is effective in control of appetite and body weight. Acylated ghrelin peptide is the active form of this peptide which plays a major role in the body’s energy balance.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the possible effect (s) of intensive resistance exercise on acylated ghrelin, growth hormone, glucose, insulin, and cortisol plasma levels.

Patients and Methods

Forty male students with the mean age of 19.22 ± 0.26 years and BMI 21.02 ± 0.33 (kg/m2) were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group performed a single session of circuit resistance exercise with 80% 1RM in both fasting and high carbohydrate meal. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise to measure the concentrations of mentioned variables.

Results

Two-way ANOVA showed that acylated ghrelin and fasting plasma glucose levels after exercise in both high-carbohydrate and fasting groups were significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), but the levels of insulin, cortisol, and growth hormones did not have any significant change.

Conclusions

Totally, it seems that the increased plasma acylated ghrelin during exercise is due to the decrease of muscle and liver energy stores which provides conditions for increased energy intake and positive energy balance.

Background

Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide, is effective in control of appetite and body weight. Acylated ghrelin peptide is the active form of this peptide which plays a major role in the body’s energy balance.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the possible effect (s) of intensive resistance exercise on acylated ghrelin, growth hormone, glucose, insulin, and cortisol plasma levels.

Patients and Methods

Forty male students with the mean age of 19.22 ± 0.26 years and BMI 21.02 ± 0.33 (kg/m2) were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group performed a single session of circuit resistance exercise with 80% 1RM in both fasting and high carbohydrate meal. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise to measure the concentrations of mentioned variables.

Results

Two-way ANOVA showed that acylated ghrelin and fasting plasma glucose levels after exercise in both high-carbohydrate and fasting groups were significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), but the levels of insulin, cortisol, and growth hormones did not have any significant change.

Conclusions

Totally, it seems that the increased plasma acylated ghrelin during exercise is due to the decrease of muscle and liver energy stores which provides conditions for increased energy intake and positive energy balance.

Ghrelin;Carbohydrate;Resistance Training Ghrelin;Carbohydrate;Resistance Training http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8568 Marzyeh Saghebjoo Marzyeh Saghebjoo Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran Mehdi Hedayati Mehdi Hedayati Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. P.O.Box: 19395-4763. Tel: +98-2122432500, Fax: +98-2122416264 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. P.O.Box: 19395-4763. Tel: +98-2122432500, Fax: +98-2122416264 Yadgar Fahimi Yadgar Fahimi Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran Saeed Ilbeigi Saeed Ilbeigi Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.8156 Depicting Medullary Thyroid Cancer Recurrence: The Past and the Future of Nuclear Medicine Imaging Depicting Medullary Thyroid Cancer Recurrence: The Past and the Future of Nuclear Medicine Imaging review-article review-article Context

Inherited and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an uncommon and medically challenging malignancy. Even if the extent of initial surgery is deemed adequate, the recurrence rate remains high, up to 50% in most series. Measurement of serum calcitonin is important in the follow-up of patients with MTC, and reliably reflects the existence of the disease.

Evidence Acquisition

There is no single sensitive diagnostic imaging method to reveal all MTC recurrences or metastases. Conventional morphologic imaging methods (U/S, CT, and MRI) and several methods of nuclear medicine have been used for this purpose with variable accuracy.

Results

The main role of nuclear medicine imaging is the detection of residual or recurrent tumor in the postoperative follow-up. In this review we present the radiopharmaceuticals used in the diagnosis of MTC recurrence, and comparison among them.

Conclusions

The most used radiopharmaceuticals labelled with γ emitters are: Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), labelled with 131I or 123I, 111In-pentetreotide (Octreoscan), 99mTc-pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA), and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide ( Tektrotyd). The radiopharmaceuticals labelled with a positron-emitting radionuclide (β+), suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-DOPA), and 68Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues (68Ga-DOTATATE or DOTATOC).

Context

Inherited and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an uncommon and medically challenging malignancy. Even if the extent of initial surgery is deemed adequate, the recurrence rate remains high, up to 50% in most series. Measurement of serum calcitonin is important in the follow-up of patients with MTC, and reliably reflects the existence of the disease.

Evidence Acquisition

There is no single sensitive diagnostic imaging method to reveal all MTC recurrences or metastases. Conventional morphologic imaging methods (U/S, CT, and MRI) and several methods of nuclear medicine have been used for this purpose with variable accuracy.

Results

The main role of nuclear medicine imaging is the detection of residual or recurrent tumor in the postoperative follow-up. In this review we present the radiopharmaceuticals used in the diagnosis of MTC recurrence, and comparison among them.

Conclusions

The most used radiopharmaceuticals labelled with γ emitters are: Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), labelled with 131I or 123I, 111In-pentetreotide (Octreoscan), 99mTc-pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA), and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide ( Tektrotyd). The radiopharmaceuticals labelled with a positron-emitting radionuclide (β+), suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-DOPA), and 68Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues (68Ga-DOTATATE or DOTATOC).

Medullary Thyroid Cancer-MTC; Calcitonin; Pentetreotide; 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; Positron-Emission Tomography; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 Medullary Thyroid Cancer-MTC; Calcitonin; Pentetreotide; 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; Positron-Emission Tomography; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8156 Evangelia Skoura Evangelia Skoura Nuclear Medicine Department, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece; Nuclear Medicine Department, Evangelismos Hospital, Ipsilandou Street, Athens 10676, Greece. Tel: +30-6946143924, Fax: +30-2107259305, E-mail: lskoura@yahoo.gr Nuclear Medicine Department, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece; Nuclear Medicine Department, Evangelismos Hospital, Ipsilandou Street, Athens 10676, Greece. Tel: +30-6946143924, Fax: +30-2107259305, E-mail: lskoura@yahoo.gr
en 10.5812/ijem.6721 Macrocytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia Induced by Orlistat Macrocytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia Induced by Orlistat case-report case-report Case Report:

Besides the interaction with other drugs (mainly warfarin and amiodarone). Orlistat´s mainly side effects are gastrointestinal disorders such as the existence of oily spotting from the rectum, abdominal pain or discomfort, fecal urgency. There are also side effects at other levels, like flu symptoms, hypoglycemia, heathache or upper respiratory infections. There are other side effects with very low incidence but clinically relevant like pancreatitis, subacute liver failure, severe liver disease, myopathy, or tubular necrosis secondary to oxalate nephropathy induced by Orlistat.

Introduction:

The overall incidence of obesity and its prevalence is increasing continuously. The obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor whose importance is increasing too. It is associated with many chronic conditions such as type II diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. The obesity is also implicated as a risk factor for several kinds of cancer such as esophagus, pancreas, colon, rectum, breast cancer in menopausal women. The treatment of the obesity may reduce the incidence of these diseases. The mainstray of the treatment of obesity is changing the lifestyles, but obesity´s treatment may need drug therapy or even though surgical treatment. Orlistat is a specific inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipases, which stops fat absortion. It is used along with a hypocaloric diet, for obesity´s treatment. The beneficial effects of orlistat include weight loss, the improvement of blood pressure´s control, it may delay the development of diabetes mellitus, and it may reduce HbA1c.

Discussion:

In this case report appears a new adverse effect of Orlistat that has not been described above: thrombopenia and macrocytic anemia.

Case Report:

Besides the interaction with other drugs (mainly warfarin and amiodarone). Orlistat´s mainly side effects are gastrointestinal disorders such as the existence of oily spotting from the rectum, abdominal pain or discomfort, fecal urgency. There are also side effects at other levels, like flu symptoms, hypoglycemia, heathache or upper respiratory infections. There are other side effects with very low incidence but clinically relevant like pancreatitis, subacute liver failure, severe liver disease, myopathy, or tubular necrosis secondary to oxalate nephropathy induced by Orlistat.

Introduction:

The overall incidence of obesity and its prevalence is increasing continuously. The obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor whose importance is increasing too. It is associated with many chronic conditions such as type II diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. The obesity is also implicated as a risk factor for several kinds of cancer such as esophagus, pancreas, colon, rectum, breast cancer in menopausal women. The treatment of the obesity may reduce the incidence of these diseases. The mainstray of the treatment of obesity is changing the lifestyles, but obesity´s treatment may need drug therapy or even though surgical treatment. Orlistat is a specific inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipases, which stops fat absortion. It is used along with a hypocaloric diet, for obesity´s treatment. The beneficial effects of orlistat include weight loss, the improvement of blood pressure´s control, it may delay the development of diabetes mellitus, and it may reduce HbA1c.

Discussion:

In this case report appears a new adverse effect of Orlistat that has not been described above: thrombopenia and macrocytic anemia.

Anti-Obesity Agents; Obesity; Obesity, Morbid; Thrombocytopenia Anti-Obesity Agents; Obesity; Obesity, Morbid; Thrombocytopenia http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6721 David Palacios-Martinez David Palacios-Martinez San Blas Health Center, Primary Health Care, SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Parla, Madrid, Spain; Los Angeles Avenue, 3-D. Getafe, Madrid, P.O.Box: 28903, Spain. Tel: 0034661529177, Fax: 0034916051429 San Blas Health Center, Primary Health Care, SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Parla, Madrid, Spain; Los Angeles Avenue, 3-D. Getafe, Madrid, P.O.Box: 28903, Spain. Tel: 0034661529177, Fax: 0034916051429 Juan Carlos Garcia-Alvarez Juan Carlos Garcia-Alvarez Local Office of Serranillos del Valle, Primary Health Care, SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Griñón, Madrid, Spain Local Office of Serranillos del Valle, Primary Health Care, SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Griñón, Madrid, Spain Nieves Montero-Santamaria Nieves Montero-Santamaria San Blas Health Center, Primary Health Care, SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Parla, Madrid, Spain San Blas Health Center, Primary Health Care, SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Parla, Madrid, Spain Olga Patricia Villar-Ruiz Olga Patricia Villar-Ruiz Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 12th October Universitary Hospital , SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Madrid, Spain Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 12th October Universitary Hospital , SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Madrid, Spain Antonio Ruiz-Garcia Antonio Ruiz-Garcia Pinto Health Center, Primary Health Care: SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Pinto, Madrid, Spain Pinto Health Center, Primary Health Care: SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Pinto, Madrid, Spain Raquel Asuncion Diaz-Alonso Raquel Asuncion Diaz-Alonso San Blas Health Center, Primary Health Care, SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Parla, Madrid, Spain San Blas Health Center, Primary Health Care, SERMAS- Madrid Health Service, Parla, Madrid, Spain
en 10.5812/ijem.8755 Androgenic Anabolic Steroid, Cocaine and Amphetamine Abuse and Adverse Cardiovascular Effects Androgenic Anabolic Steroid, Cocaine and Amphetamine Abuse and Adverse Cardiovascular Effects case-report case-report Introduction

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), a synthetic derivate of testosterone, have become a popular drug among athletes and bodybuilders to enhance muscle mass and improve the athletic performance. Many pathological effects such as hepatic and endocrine dysfunction, behavioural changes and cardiovascular complications have been reported.

Case Report

Within these ast ones, we find an increase in left ventricular muscle mass, concentric myocardial hypertrophy, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, arterial hypertension, prothrombotic effects, changes in the concentration of cholesterol levels, particularly a reduction in HDL cholesterol concentration, myocardial infarctions in relation to endothelial dysfunction, vasospasms or thrombosis and sudden cardiac death.

Discussion:

We report the case of a 32-year-old patient with a history of arterial hypertension, depressive syndrome and consumption of cocaine, amphetamines and AAS who developed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and myocardial hypertrophy with signs of heart failure and peripheral arterial embolism.

Introduction

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), a synthetic derivate of testosterone, have become a popular drug among athletes and bodybuilders to enhance muscle mass and improve the athletic performance. Many pathological effects such as hepatic and endocrine dysfunction, behavioural changes and cardiovascular complications have been reported.

Case Report

Within these ast ones, we find an increase in left ventricular muscle mass, concentric myocardial hypertrophy, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, arterial hypertension, prothrombotic effects, changes in the concentration of cholesterol levels, particularly a reduction in HDL cholesterol concentration, myocardial infarctions in relation to endothelial dysfunction, vasospasms or thrombosis and sudden cardiac death.

Discussion:

We report the case of a 32-year-old patient with a history of arterial hypertension, depressive syndrome and consumption of cocaine, amphetamines and AAS who developed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and myocardial hypertrophy with signs of heart failure and peripheral arterial embolism.

Androgenic Anabolic Steroid; Cocaine; Amphetamine; Cardiac; Adverse Effects; Abuse Androgenic Anabolic Steroid; Cocaine; Amphetamine; Cardiac; Adverse Effects; Abuse http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8755 Efren Martinez-Quintana Efren Martinez-Quintana Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Cardiology Service, Insular Materno-Infantil University Hospital, 35016, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Tel:+92-8441360 Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Cardiology Service, Insular Materno-Infantil University Hospital, 35016, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Tel:+92-8441360 Beatriz Saiz-Udaeta Beatriz Saiz-Udaeta Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Natalia Marrero-Negrin Natalia Marrero-Negrin Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Xavier Lopez-Mérida Xavier Lopez-Mérida Endocrinology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Endocrinology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Fayna Rodriguez-Gonzalez Fayna Rodriguez-Gonzalez Ophthalmology Service, Dr. Negrin University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Ophthalmology Service, Dr. Negrin University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Vicente Nieto-Lago Vicente Nieto-Lago Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Cardiology Service, Insular-Materno Infantil University Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
en 10.5812/ijem.8739 Sex Differences in Heat Shock Protein 72 Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells to Acute Exercise in the Heat Sex Differences in Heat Shock Protein 72 Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells to Acute Exercise in the Heat research-article research-article Background

Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) is responsible for maintaining critical cellular function during heat stress. Hsp72 confers thermotolerance and may play a role in heat acclimation. Animal research suggests a difference between sexes in Hsp72 expression in response to exercise, however, human data is lacking.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that men and women differ in their cellular stress response. Men up-regulated Hsp72 after a single bout of exercise in the heat, which persists for 12 days, suggesting an accumulation of Hsp72 which may lead to acquired cellular thermotolerance.

Results

Men and women differed in their Hsp72 response after exercise (time X sex X trial interaction; P < 0.05). Men increased Hsp72 after exercise more than women. Both men and women produced less Hsp72 during trial 2 compared to trial 1. Estrogen (r = 0.24; P > 0.05) and progesterone (r = 0.27, P > 0.05) concentrations were not correlated with Hsp72.

Objectives

To determine sex differences in intracellular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) following exercise in the heat.

Patients and Methods

Nine non-heat acclimated women with normal menstrual cycles (VO2pk 58 ± 5 mL.kgFFM-1∙min-1) and nine non-heat acclimated men (VO2pk 60 ± 7 ml.kgFFM-1.min-1) completed 2 treadmill bouts at 60% VO2pk for 60 min in a 42°C, 20% RH environment. Women were tested in follicular (fol) and luteal (lut) phases. The duplicate trials were separated by 12 days for men and women. Blood samples were drawn pre, immediately post, 1, and 4 hrs post-exercise.

Background

Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) is responsible for maintaining critical cellular function during heat stress. Hsp72 confers thermotolerance and may play a role in heat acclimation. Animal research suggests a difference between sexes in Hsp72 expression in response to exercise, however, human data is lacking.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that men and women differ in their cellular stress response. Men up-regulated Hsp72 after a single bout of exercise in the heat, which persists for 12 days, suggesting an accumulation of Hsp72 which may lead to acquired cellular thermotolerance.

Results

Men and women differed in their Hsp72 response after exercise (time X sex X trial interaction; P < 0.05). Men increased Hsp72 after exercise more than women. Both men and women produced less Hsp72 during trial 2 compared to trial 1. Estrogen (r = 0.24; P > 0.05) and progesterone (r = 0.27, P > 0.05) concentrations were not correlated with Hsp72.

Objectives

To determine sex differences in intracellular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) following exercise in the heat.

Patients and Methods

Nine non-heat acclimated women with normal menstrual cycles (VO2pk 58 ± 5 mL.kgFFM-1∙min-1) and nine non-heat acclimated men (VO2pk 60 ± 7 ml.kgFFM-1.min-1) completed 2 treadmill bouts at 60% VO2pk for 60 min in a 42°C, 20% RH environment. Women were tested in follicular (fol) and luteal (lut) phases. The duplicate trials were separated by 12 days for men and women. Blood samples were drawn pre, immediately post, 1, and 4 hrs post-exercise.

Menstrual Phase;Thermoregulation;Endogenous antioxidants;Thermotolerance Menstrual Phase;Thermoregulation;Endogenous antioxidants;Thermotolerance http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8739 Trevor Gillum Trevor Gillum Department of Kinesiology, California Baptist University, Riverside, USA; Kinesiology Department, California Baptist University, 8432 Magnolia Ave, Riverside, CA 92504. Tel: +1-9513434950, Fax: +1-9513434343, E-mail: tgillum@calbaptist.edu Department of Kinesiology, California Baptist University, Riverside, USA; Kinesiology Department, California Baptist University, 8432 Magnolia Ave, Riverside, CA 92504. Tel: +1-9513434950, Fax: +1-9513434343, E-mail: tgillum@calbaptist.edu Matthew Kuennen Matthew Kuennen Department of Sports and Exercise Science, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, USA Department of Sports and Exercise Science, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, USA Cheryl Gourley Cheryl Gourley Department of Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Department of Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Karol Dokladny Karol Dokladny Department of Internal Medicine, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Department of Internal Medicine, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Suzanne Schneider Suzanne Schneider Department of Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Department of Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Pope Moseley Pope Moseley Department of Internal Medicine, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Department of Internal Medicine, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA
en 10.5812/ijem.11029 Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field and GABAA Receptors on Serum Testosterone Level of Male Rats Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field and GABA<sub>A</sub> Receptors on Serum Testosterone Level of Male Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

No interactivity is present in modulatory effects of GABAA receptors and ELF-EMFs on serum testosterone of male rats.

Patients and Methods

Fifty adult male rats were randomly assigned into 10 groups. Groups 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 were exposed to ELF-EMF for 30 days 8hrs per day; while, the remaining groups (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9) were sham exposed animals. At the end of the experiment, animals in groups 1 and 2 received normal saline; while, animals in groups 3 and 4 were treated with 1 mg/kg of bicuculline methiodide, and for animals of groups 5 and 6,3 mg/kg of bicuculline was injected. Animals of groups 7 and 8 were treated with 0.5 mg/kg of muscimol hydrobromide and rats in groups 9 and 10 received 2 mg/kg muscimol hydrobromide. About forty minutes after the injection, blood samples were collected and serum testosterone level was assayed using RIA.

Results

Administration of muscimol hydrobromide at both doses to sham exposed rats significantly decreased serum testosterone level as compared to sham exposed animals which received saline. Administration of bicuculline methiodide without exposure to ELF-EMF, had no significant effect on testosterone level as compared to group 1. Serum testosterone levels of rats in different groups, exposed to ELF-EMF were statistically the same. Moreover, serum testosterone of exposed and sham exposed rats in each treatment showed no significant difference.

Background

GABA can influence the steroidogenesis in peripheral and central nervoussystems.

Objectives

The present study investigates the interactive effect of GABAA receptors and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on serum testosterone level of male rats.

Conclusions

No interactivity is present in modulatory effects of GABAA receptors and ELF-EMFs on serum testosterone of male rats.

Patients and Methods

Fifty adult male rats were randomly assigned into 10 groups. Groups 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 were exposed to ELF-EMF for 30 days 8hrs per day; while, the remaining groups (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9) were sham exposed animals. At the end of the experiment, animals in groups 1 and 2 received normal saline; while, animals in groups 3 and 4 were treated with 1 mg/kg of bicuculline methiodide, and for animals of groups 5 and 6,3 mg/kg of bicuculline was injected. Animals of groups 7 and 8 were treated with 0.5 mg/kg of muscimol hydrobromide and rats in groups 9 and 10 received 2 mg/kg muscimol hydrobromide. About forty minutes after the injection, blood samples were collected and serum testosterone level was assayed using RIA.

Results

Administration of muscimol hydrobromide at both doses to sham exposed rats significantly decreased serum testosterone level as compared to sham exposed animals which received saline. Administration of bicuculline methiodide without exposure to ELF-EMF, had no significant effect on testosterone level as compared to group 1. Serum testosterone levels of rats in different groups, exposed to ELF-EMF were statistically the same. Moreover, serum testosterone of exposed and sham exposed rats in each treatment showed no significant difference.

Background

GABA can influence the steroidogenesis in peripheral and central nervoussystems.

Objectives

The present study investigates the interactive effect of GABAA receptors and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on serum testosterone level of male rats.

Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields;Muscimol Hydrobromide;bicuculline;Testosterone;Rat Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields;Muscimol Hydrobromide;bicuculline;Testosterone;Rat http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11029 Mahnaz Taherianfard Mahnaz Taherianfard Department of Physiology, School of Vetetrinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Vetetrinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran. P.O.Box: 1731, Postcode: 71345. Tel: +98-7112286950, Fax: +98-7112286940 Department of Physiology, School of Vetetrinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Vetetrinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran. P.O.Box: 1731, Postcode: 71345. Tel: +98-7112286950, Fax: +98-7112286940 Aminolah Bahaddini Aminolah Bahaddini Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran Sara Keshtkar Sara Keshtkar Department of Biology, University of Scientific-Practical, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Biology, University of Scientific-Practical, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran Mehdi Fazeli Mehdi Fazeli Department of Pharmacology, School of Vetetrinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Pharmacology, School of Vetetrinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran Tahora Shomali Tahora Shomali Department of Pharmacology, School of Vetetrinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Pharmacology, School of Vetetrinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.10927 S-allylcysteine Improves Streptozotocin-Induced Alterations of Blood Glucose, Liver Cytochrome P450 2E1, Plasma Antioxidant System, and Adipocytes Hormones in Diabetic Rats S-allylcysteine Improves Streptozotocin-Induced Alterations of Blood Glucose, Liver Cytochrome P450 2E1, Plasma Antioxidant System, and Adipocytes Hormones in Diabetic Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

The results of the present investigation suggest that SAC could be used as a food supplement in the treatment of diabetes characterized by provoked antioxidant status, altered blood glucose, and hormones level.

Results

The levels of glucose, CYP2E1 activity, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxide, and ceruloplasmin were increased significantly; whereas, the levels of plasma insulin, reduced glutathione, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, leptin and adiponectin were decreased in experimental diabetic rats. Administration of SAC to diabetic rats led to a decrease in the levels of glucose, CYP2E1 activity, TBARS, and ceruloplasmin. In addition, the levels of plasma insulin, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants leptin and adiponectin were increased in SAC treated diabetic rats. Gliclazide, a standard drug for diabetes, was used for the comparative purpose.

Materials and Methods

Diabetic rats were administered SAC (150 mg/kg b.w) orally for 45 days. At 46th day, the rats were anesthetized, and blood and liver sample were collected for analyzing glucose, plasma insulin, CYP2E1 activity, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxide, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, reduced glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin, plasma leptin, and adiponectin.

Background

S-allylcysteine, a garlic derivative, could have a protective effect against pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.

Objectives

Sustained free radical generation and oxidative damage to system leads to the final conclusion phase of diabetes and also it coexists with a constant diminution in the antioxidant status.The present study aims to evaluate the therapeutic effects of S-allylcysteine (SAC) against adipocytes hormones and antioxidant defense systems of plasma and erythrocytes of treptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats.

Conclusions

The results of the present investigation suggest that SAC could be used as a food supplement in the treatment of diabetes characterized by provoked antioxidant status, altered blood glucose, and hormones level.

Results

The levels of glucose, CYP2E1 activity, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxide, and ceruloplasmin were increased significantly; whereas, the levels of plasma insulin, reduced glutathione, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, leptin and adiponectin were decreased in experimental diabetic rats. Administration of SAC to diabetic rats led to a decrease in the levels of glucose, CYP2E1 activity, TBARS, and ceruloplasmin. In addition, the levels of plasma insulin, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants leptin and adiponectin were increased in SAC treated diabetic rats. Gliclazide, a standard drug for diabetes, was used for the comparative purpose.

Materials and Methods

Diabetic rats were administered SAC (150 mg/kg b.w) orally for 45 days. At 46th day, the rats were anesthetized, and blood and liver sample were collected for analyzing glucose, plasma insulin, CYP2E1 activity, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxide, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, reduced glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin, plasma leptin, and adiponectin.

Background

S-allylcysteine, a garlic derivative, could have a protective effect against pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.

Objectives

Sustained free radical generation and oxidative damage to system leads to the final conclusion phase of diabetes and also it coexists with a constant diminution in the antioxidant status.The present study aims to evaluate the therapeutic effects of S-allylcysteine (SAC) against adipocytes hormones and antioxidant defense systems of plasma and erythrocytes of treptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats.

Antioxidants; Diabetes; Lipid Peroxidation; S- allylcysteine Antioxidants; Diabetes; Lipid Peroxidation; S- allylcysteine http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10927 Ganapathy Saravanan Ganapathy Saravanan Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Biological science, K.S.Rangasamy College of Arts and Science, Thokkavadi, Tiruchengode,Tamil Nadu, India; Research Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Biological Science, K. S. Rangasamy College of Arts and Science, Thokkavadi, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, 637215, India. Tel: +91-9843954422 Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Biological science, K.S.Rangasamy College of Arts and Science, Thokkavadi, Tiruchengode,Tamil Nadu, India; Research Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Biological Science, K. S. Rangasamy College of Arts and Science, Thokkavadi, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, 637215, India. Tel: +91-9843954422 Ponnusamy Ponmurugan Ponnusamy Ponmurugan Department of Biotechnology, K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Thokkavadi, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, India Department of Biotechnology, K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Thokkavadi, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, India
en 10.5812/ijem.9499 Daily Versus Alternate Day Thyroxine Therapy to Maintain Euthyroidism in Children With Congenital Hypothyroidism Daily Versus Alternate Day Thyroxine Therapy to Maintain Euthyroidism in Children With Congenital Hypothyroidism research-article research-article Background:

Daily administration of thyroxine has proven efficacy in treatment of children with hypothyroidism. However, the possibility of treatment with longer dosing intervals that offers flexibility and choice in maintaining euthyroid state has not been tested in children.

Objectives:

To study the efficacy of an alternate day regimen to maintain euthyroidism in children with congenital hypothyroidism

Patients and Methods:

Forty patients given alternate day therapy, while 30 children continued on their daily regimen were followed up at monthly intervals for 3 months. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed at each follow up visit.

Results:

The clinical and anthropometric parameters remained similar in both groups of patients during the study indicating a maintained euthyroid state clinically. The thyroid profiles also remained within normal limits suggesting biochemical euthyroidism status with alternate day therapy. However the baseline serum aminotransferase levels showed mild elevation in patients on alternate day regimen and the difference persisted during the follow up visits. Higher HDL and lower TC and LDL levels suggested some beneficial effect of alternate day schedule on lipid profiles.

Conclusions:

In short-term, alternate day schedule can be effectively used to maintain clinical and biochemical euthyroid state in children with congenital hypothyroidism beyond 4 years of age.

Background:

Daily administration of thyroxine has proven efficacy in treatment of children with hypothyroidism. However, the possibility of treatment with longer dosing intervals that offers flexibility and choice in maintaining euthyroid state has not been tested in children.

Objectives:

To study the efficacy of an alternate day regimen to maintain euthyroidism in children with congenital hypothyroidism

Patients and Methods:

Forty patients given alternate day therapy, while 30 children continued on their daily regimen were followed up at monthly intervals for 3 months. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed at each follow up visit.

Results:

The clinical and anthropometric parameters remained similar in both groups of patients during the study indicating a maintained euthyroid state clinically. The thyroid profiles also remained within normal limits suggesting biochemical euthyroidism status with alternate day therapy. However the baseline serum aminotransferase levels showed mild elevation in patients on alternate day regimen and the difference persisted during the follow up visits. Higher HDL and lower TC and LDL levels suggested some beneficial effect of alternate day schedule on lipid profiles.

Conclusions:

In short-term, alternate day schedule can be effectively used to maintain clinical and biochemical euthyroid state in children with congenital hypothyroidism beyond 4 years of age.

Hypothyroidism;Thyroxine;Children Hypothyroidism;Thyroxine;Children http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=9499 Devi Dayal Devi Dayal Departments of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research,Chandigarh, India. Tel: +91-1722755657, Fax:+91-1722744401 Departments of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research,Chandigarh, India. Tel: +91-1722755657, Fax:+91-1722744401 Lokesh Saini Lokesh Saini Departments of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Departments of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Savita Verma Attri Savita Verma Attri Departments of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Departments of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Baljinder Singh Baljinder Singh Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Anil Kumar Bhalla Anil Kumar Bhalla Departments of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Departments of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
en 10.5812/ijem.9860 Female Pattern Hair Loss Female Pattern Hair Loss review-article review-article Results:

The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL.

Conclusions:

The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

Context:

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities.

Evidence Acquisition:

A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

Results:

The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL.

Conclusions:

The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

Context:

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities.

Evidence Acquisition:

A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome;Minoxidil;Female;Alopecia, Therapy;Alopecia, physiopathology;Androgen antagonist, Therapeutic Use Polycystic Ovary Syndrome;Minoxidil;Female;Alopecia, Therapy;Alopecia, physiopathology;Androgen antagonist, Therapeutic Use http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=9860 Ingrid Herskovitz Ingrid Herskovitz Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, USA Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, USA Antonella Tosti Antonella Tosti Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, USA; 1295 NW 14th Street, University of Miami, Hospital South Bldg, Suites K-M, FL 33136, Miami, USA. Tel: +1-3052434472 Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, USA; 1295 NW 14th Street, University of Miami, Hospital South Bldg, Suites K-M, FL 33136, Miami, USA. Tel: +1-3052434472
en 10.5812/ijem.10266 Comparing the Effects of Ginger and Glibenclamide on Dihydroxybenzoic Metabolites Produced in Stz-Induced Diabetic Rats Comparing the Effects of Ginger and Glibenclamide on Dihydroxybenzoic Metabolites Produced in Stz-Induced Diabetic Rats research-article research-article Background

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger and glibenclamide on oxidative stress markers. Oxidative stress is caused by an unbalance between a relative overload of oxidants and depletion of antioxidants, as implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Regarding the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, we investigated the effect of ginger and glibenclamide in diabetic rats induced bystreptozocin (STZ).

Objectives

This study assessed the effects of ginger and glibenclamide on dihydroxybenzoic acid metabolites in diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods

In this study 30 Wistar strain male rats were divided into five groups: Group 1: Normal control receiving normal saline (0.9 0/0), Group 2: control DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) (as solvent of glibenclamide), Group 3: Diabetic control receiving Streptozocin (STZ ) (50 mg/kg) ,Group 4: diabetic+ Ginger Extract: this group received ginger ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) via IP (Intraperitoneally) injection for 30 days, and Group 5 diabetic rats received glibenclamide (0.5 m/kg). Production of hydroxyl radicals was examined in the diabetic rats induced by streptozocin. Hydroxyl radicals were generated in plasma of the hyperglycemic rats, and were quantitatively assayed by trapping hydroxyl radicals with salicylic acid so as to produce 2,3-and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid.

Results

Production of hydroxyl radicals increased; therefore, by using salicylic acid, hydroxyl radicals were trapped and 2,3dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2,5dihydroxybenzoic acid metabolites were formed then measured by HPLC and spectrophotometer. Rats receiving ginger extract and glibenclamide showed decreased level of metabolites compared to the diabetic controls (P <0/001). This means that antioxidants act as scavenger of free radicals.

Conclusions

Comparative effect of ginger and glibenclamide also showed that glibenclamide has antioxidant effect as a scavenger of free radical, but ginger is more capable of eliminating them.

Background

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger and glibenclamide on oxidative stress markers. Oxidative stress is caused by an unbalance between a relative overload of oxidants and depletion of antioxidants, as implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Regarding the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, we investigated the effect of ginger and glibenclamide in diabetic rats induced bystreptozocin (STZ).

Objectives

This study assessed the effects of ginger and glibenclamide on dihydroxybenzoic acid metabolites in diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods

In this study 30 Wistar strain male rats were divided into five groups: Group 1: Normal control receiving normal saline (0.9 0/0), Group 2: control DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) (as solvent of glibenclamide), Group 3: Diabetic control receiving Streptozocin (STZ ) (50 mg/kg) ,Group 4: diabetic+ Ginger Extract: this group received ginger ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) via IP (Intraperitoneally) injection for 30 days, and Group 5 diabetic rats received glibenclamide (0.5 m/kg). Production of hydroxyl radicals was examined in the diabetic rats induced by streptozocin. Hydroxyl radicals were generated in plasma of the hyperglycemic rats, and were quantitatively assayed by trapping hydroxyl radicals with salicylic acid so as to produce 2,3-and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid.

Results

Production of hydroxyl radicals increased; therefore, by using salicylic acid, hydroxyl radicals were trapped and 2,3dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2,5dihydroxybenzoic acid metabolites were formed then measured by HPLC and spectrophotometer. Rats receiving ginger extract and glibenclamide showed decreased level of metabolites compared to the diabetic controls (P <0/001). This means that antioxidants act as scavenger of free radicals.

Conclusions

Comparative effect of ginger and glibenclamide also showed that glibenclamide has antioxidant effect as a scavenger of free radical, but ginger is more capable of eliminating them.

Free Radical; STZ –Induced Diabetic Rats; Ginger; Glibenclamide Free Radical; STZ –Induced Diabetic Rats; Ginger; Glibenclamide http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10266 Ramesh Ahmadi Ramesh Ahmadi Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Qom, IR Iran; Islamic Azad university of Qom, 15 Khordad St, Qom, IR Iran. Tel:+98-2537780001, Fax:+98-2137770001 Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Qom, IR Iran; Islamic Azad university of Qom, 15 Khordad St, Qom, IR Iran. Tel:+98-2537780001, Fax:+98-2137770001 Saeede Pishghadam Saeede Pishghadam Islamic Azad university, Qom, IR Iran Islamic Azad university, Qom, IR Iran Fatemeh Mollaamine Fatemeh Mollaamine Department of chemistry, Islamic Azad university, Qom, IR Iran Department of chemistry, Islamic Azad university, Qom, IR Iran Mohammad Reza Zand Monfared Mohammad Reza Zand Monfared Department of chemistry, Islamic Azad university, Qom, IR Iran Department of chemistry, Islamic Azad university, Qom, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.10418 Insulin-Related Biomarkers to Predict the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Insulin-Related Biomarkers to Predict the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome research-article research-article Conclusions

The mathematical meaning of the two insulin-related biomarkers examined was the same, and the odds ratios of the two biomarkers were almost the same after adjustments for other independent variables.

Objectives

A one-year follow-up study was conducted to determine the ability of the insulin-related biomarkers to predict the risk of MetS development.

Patients and Methods

A total of 2642 male workers of a Japanese company free from MetS at the baseline were monitored. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were selected as the insulin-related markers.

Results

The incidence of metabolic syndrome after one year was 8.8%. A multiple logistic regression analysis identified regular physical activity, age (≥ 45 years old), serum uric acid (≥ 7 mg/dL), serum alanine aminotransferase (≥ 45 IU/L), serum C-reactive protein (≥ 0.1 mg/L) and HOMA-IR (≥ 2.5) as significant risk factors for the development of MetS, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.68 (0.50 – 0.92), 2.0 (1.5 – 2.6), 2.2 (1.6 – 3.0), 1.5 (1.02 – 2.2), 1.4 (1.01 – 2.0), and 2.3 (1.6 – 3.3), respectively. When QUICKI was used instead of HOMA-IR, age (≥ 45 years old), serum uric acid (≥ 7 mg/dL), serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (≥ 50 IU/L), and QUICKI (≤ 0.33) were identified as significant contributors to the risk of MetS, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.68 (0.51 – 0.93), 2.0 (1.5 – 2.6), 2.2 (1.6 – 3.0), 1.4 (1.01 – 2.0), and 2.5 (1.7 – 3.6), respectively.

Background

The predictive ability of insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity, in combination with traditional cardiovascular risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS), has not yet been clearly evaluated in Japanese male subjects.

Conclusions

The mathematical meaning of the two insulin-related biomarkers examined was the same, and the odds ratios of the two biomarkers were almost the same after adjustments for other independent variables.

Objectives

A one-year follow-up study was conducted to determine the ability of the insulin-related biomarkers to predict the risk of MetS development.

Patients and Methods

A total of 2642 male workers of a Japanese company free from MetS at the baseline were monitored. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were selected as the insulin-related markers.

Results

The incidence of metabolic syndrome after one year was 8.8%. A multiple logistic regression analysis identified regular physical activity, age (≥ 45 years old), serum uric acid (≥ 7 mg/dL), serum alanine aminotransferase (≥ 45 IU/L), serum C-reactive protein (≥ 0.1 mg/L) and HOMA-IR (≥ 2.5) as significant risk factors for the development of MetS, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.68 (0.50 – 0.92), 2.0 (1.5 – 2.6), 2.2 (1.6 – 3.0), 1.5 (1.02 – 2.2), 1.4 (1.01 – 2.0), and 2.3 (1.6 – 3.3), respectively. When QUICKI was used instead of HOMA-IR, age (≥ 45 years old), serum uric acid (≥ 7 mg/dL), serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (≥ 50 IU/L), and QUICKI (≤ 0.33) were identified as significant contributors to the risk of MetS, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.68 (0.51 – 0.93), 2.0 (1.5 – 2.6), 2.2 (1.6 – 3.0), 1.4 (1.01 – 2.0), and 2.5 (1.7 – 3.6), respectively.

Background

The predictive ability of insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity, in combination with traditional cardiovascular risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS), has not yet been clearly evaluated in Japanese male subjects.

Insulin Resistance;Biomarkers;Metabolic Syndrome X;Aging Insulin Resistance;Biomarkers;Metabolic Syndrome X;Aging http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10418 Tomoyuki Kawada Tomoyuki Kawada Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-Ku, 113-8602 Tokyo, Japan. Tel: +81-338222131, Fax: +81-356853065 Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-Ku, 113-8602 Tokyo, Japan. Tel: +81-338222131, Fax: +81-356853065
en 10.5812/ijem.10169 Leemoo, a Dietary Assessment and Nutritional Planning Software, Using Fuzzy Logic Leemoo, a Dietary Assessment and Nutritional Planning Software, Using Fuzzy Logic brief-report brief-report Results

All databases are flexible for updating. The program can calculate the amounts of nutrients and food group intakes and compare these with Dietary Reference Intakes and MyPyramid recommendations. This software has the ability of nutritional planning and estimates normal intake ranges of seven food groups based on person need.

Objectives

The aim of this research was to describe the applications of this newly introduced software.

Methods and Materials

Leemoo contains the following databases: food, nutrients, MyPyramid equivalents and physical activity. These databases facilitate diet analysis and planning. The food composition database includes 2920 Iranian food items, with the nutrient composition for up to 64 nutrients.

Background

Leemoo is a user-friendly software designed for nutritional planning and dietary assessment applications by cooperation of Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, which uses fuzzy logic for the first time. It provides a range of recommended servings for food groups, which are easier for people to follow.

Conclusions

This software was envisaged for use by health professionals, researchers and ordinary people and can be recommended for educational purpose and nutrition research in Iran. Future studies must be conducted to evaluate the effects of this software on users’ dietary habits and nutrition knowledge.

Results

All databases are flexible for updating. The program can calculate the amounts of nutrients and food group intakes and compare these with Dietary Reference Intakes and MyPyramid recommendations. This software has the ability of nutritional planning and estimates normal intake ranges of seven food groups based on person need.

Objectives

The aim of this research was to describe the applications of this newly introduced software.

Methods and Materials

Leemoo contains the following databases: food, nutrients, MyPyramid equivalents and physical activity. These databases facilitate diet analysis and planning. The food composition database includes 2920 Iranian food items, with the nutrient composition for up to 64 nutrients.

Background

Leemoo is a user-friendly software designed for nutritional planning and dietary assessment applications by cooperation of Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, which uses fuzzy logic for the first time. It provides a range of recommended servings for food groups, which are easier for people to follow.

Conclusions

This software was envisaged for use by health professionals, researchers and ordinary people and can be recommended for educational purpose and nutrition research in Iran. Future studies must be conducted to evaluate the effects of this software on users’ dietary habits and nutrition knowledge.

Nutrition Software;Leemoo;Fuzzy Logic;Food Groups Nutrition Software;Leemoo;Fuzzy Logic;Food Groups http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10169 Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Mahdi Sarsharzadeh Mohammad Mahdi Sarsharzadeh Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Parvin Mirmiran Parvin Mirmiran Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, P.O. Box: 19395-4741, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122432503, Fax: +98-2122402463 Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, P.O. Box: 19395-4741, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122432503, Fax: +98-2122402463 Golaleh Asghari Golaleh Asghari Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Emad Yuzbashian Emad Yuzbashian Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fereidoun Azizi Fereidoun Azizi Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran