International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism Int J Endocrinol Metab http://www.endometabol.com 1726-913X 1726-9148 10.5812/ijem en jalali 2017 5 28 gregorian 2017 5 28 12 1
en 10.5812/ijem.9329 Radioiodine Contamination Artifacts and Unusual Patterns of Accumulation in Whole-body I-131 Imaging: A Case Series Radioiodine Contamination Artifacts and Unusual Patterns of Accumulation in Whole-body I-131 Imaging: A Case Series case-report case-report Conclusions:

This study provides detailed information and case samples of radiodine contamination artifacts and non-physiological, non-metastatic extra-thyroidal I-131 accumulation in whole-body I-131 imaging.

Introduction:

Radioactive iodine has been used for more than 50 years for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Differentiated thyroid cancers have the ability to trap iodine. Therefore, radioiodine can be used both diagnostically and therapeutically. In the follow-up of patients, it is critical to interpret radioiodine scans correctly.

Case Presentation:

Non-physiological Iodine-131 (I-131) extra-thyroidal uptake detected on post-therapy or diagnostic I-131 scanning are not always interpreted as functioning metastatic thyroid cancer.

Conclusions:

This study provides detailed information and case samples of radiodine contamination artifacts and non-physiological, non-metastatic extra-thyroidal I-131 accumulation in whole-body I-131 imaging.

Introduction:

Radioactive iodine has been used for more than 50 years for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Differentiated thyroid cancers have the ability to trap iodine. Therefore, radioiodine can be used both diagnostically and therapeutically. In the follow-up of patients, it is critical to interpret radioiodine scans correctly.

Case Presentation:

Non-physiological Iodine-131 (I-131) extra-thyroidal uptake detected on post-therapy or diagnostic I-131 scanning are not always interpreted as functioning metastatic thyroid cancer.

Thyroid Cancer;Radioiodine Scan;False Positive Thyroid Cancer;Radioiodine Scan;False Positive http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=9329 Pelin Ozcan Kara Pelin Ozcan Kara Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University , Mersin, Turkey; Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey. Tel: +90-3243367008, Fax: +90-3243367008 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University , Mersin, Turkey; Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey. Tel: +90-3243367008, Fax: +90-3243367008 Emel Ceylan Gunay Emel Ceylan Gunay Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University , Mersin, Turkey Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University , Mersin, Turkey Alihan Erdogan Alihan Erdogan Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University , Mersin, Turkey Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University , Mersin, Turkey
en 10.5812/ijem.8984 Drug Transport Mechanism of Oral Antidiabetic Nanomedicines Drug Transport Mechanism of Oral Antidiabetic Nanomedicines review-article review-article Context:

Over the last few decades, extensive efforts have been made worldwide to develop nanomedicine delivery systems, especially via oral route for antidiabetic drugs. Absorption of insulin is hindered by epithelial cells of gastrointestinal tract, acidic gastric pH and digestive enzymes.

Evidence Acquisition:

Recent reports have identified and explained the beneficial role of several structural molecules like mucoadhesive polymers (polyacrylic acid, sodium alginate, chitosan) and other copolymers for the efficient transport and release of insulin to its receptors.

Results:

Insulin nanomedicines based on alginate-dextran sulfate core with a chitosan-polyethylene glycol-albumin shell reduced glycaemia in a dose dependent manner. Orally available exendin-4 formulations exerted their effects in a time dependent manner. Insulin nanoparticles formed by using alginate and dextran sulfate nucleating around calcium and binding to poloxamer, stabilized by chitosan, and subsequently coated with albumin showed a threefold increase of the hypoglycemic effect in comparison to free insulin in animal models. Solid lipid nanoparticles showed an enhancement of the bioavailability of repaglinide (RG) within optimized solid lipid nanoparticle formulations when compared with RG alone.

Conclusions:

Nanoparticles represent multiparticulate delivery systems designed to obtain prolonged or controlled drug delivery and to improve bioavailability as well as stability. Nanoparticles can also offer advantages like limiting fluctuations within therapeutic range, reducing side effects, protecting drugs from degradation, decreasing dosing frequency, and improving patient compliance and convenience

Context:

Over the last few decades, extensive efforts have been made worldwide to develop nanomedicine delivery systems, especially via oral route for antidiabetic drugs. Absorption of insulin is hindered by epithelial cells of gastrointestinal tract, acidic gastric pH and digestive enzymes.

Evidence Acquisition:

Recent reports have identified and explained the beneficial role of several structural molecules like mucoadhesive polymers (polyacrylic acid, sodium alginate, chitosan) and other copolymers for the efficient transport and release of insulin to its receptors.

Results:

Insulin nanomedicines based on alginate-dextran sulfate core with a chitosan-polyethylene glycol-albumin shell reduced glycaemia in a dose dependent manner. Orally available exendin-4 formulations exerted their effects in a time dependent manner. Insulin nanoparticles formed by using alginate and dextran sulfate nucleating around calcium and binding to poloxamer, stabilized by chitosan, and subsequently coated with albumin showed a threefold increase of the hypoglycemic effect in comparison to free insulin in animal models. Solid lipid nanoparticles showed an enhancement of the bioavailability of repaglinide (RG) within optimized solid lipid nanoparticle formulations when compared with RG alone.

Conclusions:

Nanoparticles represent multiparticulate delivery systems designed to obtain prolonged or controlled drug delivery and to improve bioavailability as well as stability. Nanoparticles can also offer advantages like limiting fluctuations within therapeutic range, reducing side effects, protecting drugs from degradation, decreasing dosing frequency, and improving patient compliance and convenience

Nanomedicines;Diabetes;Drug Transport Nanomedicines;Diabetes;Drug Transport http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=8984 Evren Gundogdu Evren Gundogdu Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Tel.: +90-2323884000, Fax: +90-2323885258 Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Tel.: +90-2323884000, Fax: +90-2323885258 Aysu Yurdasiper Aysu Yurdasiper Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey
en 10.5812/ijem.11463 Diagnosing Thyroid Lymphoma: Steroid Administration May Result in Rapid Improvement of Dyspnea : A Report of Two Cases Diagnosing Thyroid Lymphoma: Steroid Administration May Result in Rapid Improvement of Dyspnea : A Report of Two Cases case-report case-report Conclusions:

The potent effect of corticosteroids in the rapid improvement of respiratory compromise associated with thyroid lymphoma represents an important clinical finding. This opens the possibility for the favorable response to corticosteroid therapy to be regarded as a possible preliminary diagnostic tool for thyroid lymphoma in acute respiratory distress patients in the absence of tracheal compression. Subsequent retrospective studies are necessary to verify this hypothesis.

Case Presentation:

Here we describe two patients with suddenly enlarging thyroid nodules, who developed acute respiratory compromise in the absence of tracheal compression. Their symptoms rapidly improved with administration of corticosteroids, and in subsequent workup, both were diagnosed as thyroid lymphoma.

Introduction:

Thyroid nodules, whether benign or malignant, are slow growing masses. There are certain clinical situations where sudden rapid growth may occur and cause acute respiratory compromise secondary to tracheal compression.

Conclusions:

The potent effect of corticosteroids in the rapid improvement of respiratory compromise associated with thyroid lymphoma represents an important clinical finding. This opens the possibility for the favorable response to corticosteroid therapy to be regarded as a possible preliminary diagnostic tool for thyroid lymphoma in acute respiratory distress patients in the absence of tracheal compression. Subsequent retrospective studies are necessary to verify this hypothesis.

Case Presentation:

Here we describe two patients with suddenly enlarging thyroid nodules, who developed acute respiratory compromise in the absence of tracheal compression. Their symptoms rapidly improved with administration of corticosteroids, and in subsequent workup, both were diagnosed as thyroid lymphoma.

Introduction:

Thyroid nodules, whether benign or malignant, are slow growing masses. There are certain clinical situations where sudden rapid growth may occur and cause acute respiratory compromise secondary to tracheal compression.

Thyroid;Lymphoma;Dyspnea;Steroids;Trachea;Diagnostic Tests Thyroid;Lymphoma;Dyspnea;Steroids;Trachea;Diagnostic Tests http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11463 Oliver S. Eng Oliver S. Eng Department of Surgery, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA; Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Surgery, MEB 596, P.O.Box 19, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 08903, USA. Tel: +1-7322357674, Fax: +1-7322358372 Department of Surgery, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA; Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Surgery, MEB 596, P.O.Box 19, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 08903, USA. Tel: +1-7322357674, Fax: +1-7322358372 Sebastian Lesniak Sebastian Lesniak Department of Surgery, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA Department of Surgery, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA Tomer Davidov Tomer Davidov Department of Surgery, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA Department of Surgery, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA Stanley Z. Trooskin Stanley Z. Trooskin Department of Surgery, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA Department of Surgery, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
en 10.5812/ijem.10749 Hypogonadism and Metabolic Syndrome in Nigerian Male Patients With Both Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension Hypogonadism and Metabolic Syndrome in Nigerian Male Patients With Both Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension research-article research-article Results:

This study showed significantly lowered concentrations of testosterone (3.11 nm/L ± 0.34) and HDL (0.39 mmol/L ± 0.02), in addition to the expected increased concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (9.61 mmol/L ± 0.37) in the subjects compared to controls (P < 0.05). An inverse significant correlation was observed between the serum testosterone concentration and metabolic syndrome (BMI, r = -0.477; waist/Hip ratio, r = -0.376 and dyslipidemia, r = -0.364, P < 0.05). Also, the testosterone level decreased with increase in central obesity (P < 0.05).

Conclusions:

This study established a strong association between low serum testosterone and metabolic syndrome in subjects with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension. It may therefore be advisable to include routine measurement of the testosterone level in the management of patients presented with both diabetes and hypertension. Furthermore, these patients may benefit from testosterone replacement therapy.

Background:

The association between testosterone level and the components of metabolic syndrome remains controversial. Relevant studies from Sub-Saharan Africa are few and incohesive.

Objectives:

The current study was designed to investigate the level of testosterone in patients with both diabetes and hypertension and the association of low testosterone with metabolic syndrome in these patients.

Materials and Methods:

In this prospective case-control study, 83 male subjects (49 newly diagnosed men with both diabetes and hypertension and 34 apparently healthy controls) were recruited from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria and University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Demographic, anthropometric and sexual characteristics were obtained using structured questionnaires and standard methods. Blood plasma glucose (BPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured by conventional methods. Testosterone (T) was analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Data obtained were statically analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 software, and results were expressed as mean ± SEM.

Results:

This study showed significantly lowered concentrations of testosterone (3.11 nm/L ± 0.34) and HDL (0.39 mmol/L ± 0.02), in addition to the expected increased concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (9.61 mmol/L ± 0.37) in the subjects compared to controls (P < 0.05). An inverse significant correlation was observed between the serum testosterone concentration and metabolic syndrome (BMI, r = -0.477; waist/Hip ratio, r = -0.376 and dyslipidemia, r = -0.364, P < 0.05). Also, the testosterone level decreased with increase in central obesity (P < 0.05).

Conclusions:

This study established a strong association between low serum testosterone and metabolic syndrome in subjects with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension. It may therefore be advisable to include routine measurement of the testosterone level in the management of patients presented with both diabetes and hypertension. Furthermore, these patients may benefit from testosterone replacement therapy.

Background:

The association between testosterone level and the components of metabolic syndrome remains controversial. Relevant studies from Sub-Saharan Africa are few and incohesive.

Objectives:

The current study was designed to investigate the level of testosterone in patients with both diabetes and hypertension and the association of low testosterone with metabolic syndrome in these patients.

Materials and Methods:

In this prospective case-control study, 83 male subjects (49 newly diagnosed men with both diabetes and hypertension and 34 apparently healthy controls) were recruited from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria and University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Demographic, anthropometric and sexual characteristics were obtained using structured questionnaires and standard methods. Blood plasma glucose (BPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured by conventional methods. Testosterone (T) was analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Data obtained were statically analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 software, and results were expressed as mean ± SEM.

Testosterone;Metabolic Syndrome;Diabetes;Hypertension;Dyslipidemia;Cholesterol Testosterone;Metabolic Syndrome;Diabetes;Hypertension;Dyslipidemia;Cholesterol http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10749 Oluyemi Akinloye Oluyemi Akinloye Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; Departement of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria. Tel: +23-48073133114, Fax: +23-48143875610 Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; Departement of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria. Tel: +23-48073133114, Fax: +23-48143875610 Bolutife Blessing Popoola Bolutife Blessing Popoola Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Mary Bolanle Ajadi Mary Bolanle Ajadi Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Joseph Gregory Uchechukwu Joseph Gregory Uchechukwu Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Dolapo Pius Oparinde Dolapo Pius Oparinde Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
en 10.5812/ijem.10748 An Extracellular Matrix Molecule, Secreted by the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition is Associated With Lymph Node Metastasis of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma An Extracellular Matrix Molecule, Secreted by the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition is Associated With Lymph Node Metastasis of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma research-article research-article Results

There were 39 cases with lymph node metastasis in 59 malignant tumors, and 0 cases in 6 benign follicular type tumors. The staining scores by JT-95 of the 39 tumors with lymph node metastasis were 5+ in eight cases and 6+ in 31 cases. On the other hand, the scores of 20 malignant tumors without lymph node metastasis were < 4+ in all of the cases. In the co-cultured assay, numerous adhesions were observed between the SW1736 and Daudi cells. In contrast, the inhibition of adherences was observed in proportion to the concentrations of JT-95.

Patients and Methods

Immunostaining with JT-95 was performed in 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma cases, and 20 follicular type tumors, to investigate the association between the quantity of fibronectin expression and the frequency of lymph node metastasis. The thyroid carcinoma cell line (SW1736), which secreted fibronectin, and the B cell-lymphoma cell line (Daudi), which held integrin on the cell surface, were co-cultured to observe the adhesion of cells to each other. The SW1736 cell line, pretreated with JT-95, was also co-cultured with the Daudi cell line.

Objectives

The current study was conducted to investigate the association between increasing the number of extracellular matrix molecules, fibronectin, and lymph node metastasis. We also co-cultured a thyroid carcinoma cell line and lymphocyte cell line, with and without MoAb JT-95, in order to investigate the mechanism of cell to cell interaction.

Background

Papillary thyroid carcinoma often has lymph node metastasis, compared with follicular thyroid carcinoma. The study showed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition occurs in carcinoma cells during the first stage of metastasis, where some extracellular matrix molecules are secreted in large quantities. Sialic acid carried by fibronectin as the antigen of the monoclonal antibody (MoAb) JT-95, was detected in 90% of papillary thyroid carcinoma cases, and in a few follicular thyroid carcinomas, in the extracellular matrix of thyroid carcinoma cells.

Conclusions

Increased fibronectin expression in thyroid malignancies is correlated with lymph node metastasis.

Results

There were 39 cases with lymph node metastasis in 59 malignant tumors, and 0 cases in 6 benign follicular type tumors. The staining scores by JT-95 of the 39 tumors with lymph node metastasis were 5+ in eight cases and 6+ in 31 cases. On the other hand, the scores of 20 malignant tumors without lymph node metastasis were < 4+ in all of the cases. In the co-cultured assay, numerous adhesions were observed between the SW1736 and Daudi cells. In contrast, the inhibition of adherences was observed in proportion to the concentrations of JT-95.

Patients and Methods

Immunostaining with JT-95 was performed in 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma cases, and 20 follicular type tumors, to investigate the association between the quantity of fibronectin expression and the frequency of lymph node metastasis. The thyroid carcinoma cell line (SW1736), which secreted fibronectin, and the B cell-lymphoma cell line (Daudi), which held integrin on the cell surface, were co-cultured to observe the adhesion of cells to each other. The SW1736 cell line, pretreated with JT-95, was also co-cultured with the Daudi cell line.

Objectives

The current study was conducted to investigate the association between increasing the number of extracellular matrix molecules, fibronectin, and lymph node metastasis. We also co-cultured a thyroid carcinoma cell line and lymphocyte cell line, with and without MoAb JT-95, in order to investigate the mechanism of cell to cell interaction.

Background

Papillary thyroid carcinoma often has lymph node metastasis, compared with follicular thyroid carcinoma. The study showed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition occurs in carcinoma cells during the first stage of metastasis, where some extracellular matrix molecules are secreted in large quantities. Sialic acid carried by fibronectin as the antigen of the monoclonal antibody (MoAb) JT-95, was detected in 90% of papillary thyroid carcinoma cases, and in a few follicular thyroid carcinomas, in the extracellular matrix of thyroid carcinoma cells.

Conclusions

Increased fibronectin expression in thyroid malignancies is correlated with lymph node metastasis.

Extracellular Matrix;Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Extracellular Matrix;Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10748 Hiroshi Takeyama Hiroshi Takeyama Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8,105-8461, Tokyo, Japan. Tel.: +1-81-3-3433-1111, Fax: +1-81-3-5472-4140 Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8,105-8461, Tokyo, Japan. Tel.: +1-81-3-3433-1111, Fax: +1-81-3-5472-4140 Yoshinobu Manome Yoshinobu Manome Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Kouki Fujioka Kouki Fujioka Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Isao Tabei Isao Tabei Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Hiroko Nogi Hiroko Nogi Yasuo Toriumi Yasuo Toriumi Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Kumiko Kato Kumiko Kato Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Makiko Kamio Makiko Kamio Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Yoshimi Imawari Yoshimi Imawari Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Satoki Kinoshita Satoki Kinoshita Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Naoshi Akiba Naoshi Akiba Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Ken Uchida Ken Uchida Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Toshiaki Morikawa Toshiaki Morikawa Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
en 10.5812/ijem.12554 Interactions of Morphine and Peptide 234 on Mean Plasma Testosterone Concentration Interactions of Morphine and Peptide 234 on Mean Plasma Testosterone Concentration research-article research-article Background:

Kisspeptin-GPR54 system stimulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis; dysfunction of the gene encoding the GPR54 receptor causes hypogonadism and infertility. Opioid peptides inhibit the reproductive axis. Peptide 234 is a GPR54 receptor antagonist and blocks the stimulatory effects of kisspeptin on HPG axis.

Objectives:

Interactions of morphine, kisspeptin and peptide 234 on mean plasma testosterone concentration was investigated in rats. .

Materials and Methods:

In the present experimental study, seventy male Wistar rats in 14 groups (n = 5 in each group) received saline, different doses of kisspeptin (100 pmol, 1 or 3 nmol, Intracerebroventricular (ICV)), P234 (1 or 2.5 nmol) or Co- administration of kisspeptin, P234, morphine and naloxone at 09:00 - 09:30 am. In the co-administrated groups, kisspeptin was injected at 15 min following P234, morphine or naloxone injections. Blood samples were collected 60 min following injections. Plasma testosterone concentration was measured using the rat testosterone ELISA kit.

Results:

Injections of kisspeptin (1 or 3 nmol) significantly increased the mean testosterone concentration compared to saline. Injection of different doses of P234 (1 or 2.5nmol) did not significantly decrease mean testosterone compared to saline. Co-administration of kisspeptin and different doses of P234 significantly decreased mean testosterone concentration compared to the kisspeptin group. Co-administration of P234/morphine or P234/naloxone significantly decreased mean testosterone concentration compared to kisspeptin/saline, kisspeptin/morphine or kisspeptin/ naloxone groups.

Conclusions:

Morphine and kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling pathway may interact with each other to control the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

Background:

Kisspeptin-GPR54 system stimulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis; dysfunction of the gene encoding the GPR54 receptor causes hypogonadism and infertility. Opioid peptides inhibit the reproductive axis. Peptide 234 is a GPR54 receptor antagonist and blocks the stimulatory effects of kisspeptin on HPG axis.

Objectives:

Interactions of morphine, kisspeptin and peptide 234 on mean plasma testosterone concentration was investigated in rats. .

Materials and Methods:

In the present experimental study, seventy male Wistar rats in 14 groups (n = 5 in each group) received saline, different doses of kisspeptin (100 pmol, 1 or 3 nmol, Intracerebroventricular (ICV)), P234 (1 or 2.5 nmol) or Co- administration of kisspeptin, P234, morphine and naloxone at 09:00 - 09:30 am. In the co-administrated groups, kisspeptin was injected at 15 min following P234, morphine or naloxone injections. Blood samples were collected 60 min following injections. Plasma testosterone concentration was measured using the rat testosterone ELISA kit.

Results:

Injections of kisspeptin (1 or 3 nmol) significantly increased the mean testosterone concentration compared to saline. Injection of different doses of P234 (1 or 2.5nmol) did not significantly decrease mean testosterone compared to saline. Co-administration of kisspeptin and different doses of P234 significantly decreased mean testosterone concentration compared to the kisspeptin group. Co-administration of P234/morphine or P234/naloxone significantly decreased mean testosterone concentration compared to kisspeptin/saline, kisspeptin/morphine or kisspeptin/ naloxone groups.

Conclusions:

Morphine and kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling pathway may interact with each other to control the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

Kisspeptin;P234;Morphine;Testosterone Kisspeptin;P234;Morphine;Testosterone http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12554 Fariba Mahmoudi Fariba Mahmoudi Department of Animal Sciences,Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Animal Sciences,Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran Homayoun Khazali Homayoun Khazali Department of Animal Sciences,Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Animal Sciences,Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121254041 Department of Animal Sciences,Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Animal Sciences,Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121254041 Mahyar Janahmadi Mahyar Janahmadi Department of Phsiology Neurophysiology Research Center, Medical School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Phsiology Neurophysiology Research Center, Medical School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.13376 Can Procalcitonin Be an Accurate Diagnostic Marker for the Classification of Diabetic Foot Ulcers? Can Procalcitonin Be an Accurate Diagnostic Marker for the Classification of Diabetic Foot Ulcers? research-article research-article Background:

The differentiation of infected diabetic foot ulcers (IDFU) from non infected diabetic foot ulcers (NIDFU) is a challenging issue for clinicians.

Objectives:

Recently, procalcitonin (PCT) was introduced as a remarkable inflammatory marker. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of PCT in comparison to other inflammatory markers for distinguishing IDFU from NIDFU.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that PCT can be a diagnostic marker in combination with other markers like ESR and CRP to distinguish infected from non-infected foot ulcers, when clinical manifestations are un specific. Additional research is needed before the routine usage of PCT to better define the role of PCT in IDFU.

Materials and Methods:

We evaluated PCT serum level as a marker of bacterial infection in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Sixty patients with diabetic foot ulcers were consecutively enrolled in the study. A total of 30 patients were clinically identified as IDFU by an expert clinician, taking as criteria for purulent discharges or at least two of manifestations of inflammation including warmth, redness, swelling and pain.

Results:

Procalcitonin, white blood cells (WBCs), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP), were found significantly higher in the IDFU group compared to the NIDFU group. The best cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity were 40.5 mm/h, 90% and 94% for ESR, 7.1 mg/dL, 80% and 74% for CRP, 0.21, 70% and 74% for PCT, and 7.7×109/L, 66% and 67% for WBCs, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ESR was the greatest (0.967; P < 0.001), followed by CRP (0.871; P < 0.001), PCT (0.729; P < 0.001), and finally WBCs (0.721; P = 0.001).

Background:

The differentiation of infected diabetic foot ulcers (IDFU) from non infected diabetic foot ulcers (NIDFU) is a challenging issue for clinicians.

Objectives:

Recently, procalcitonin (PCT) was introduced as a remarkable inflammatory marker. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of PCT in comparison to other inflammatory markers for distinguishing IDFU from NIDFU.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that PCT can be a diagnostic marker in combination with other markers like ESR and CRP to distinguish infected from non-infected foot ulcers, when clinical manifestations are un specific. Additional research is needed before the routine usage of PCT to better define the role of PCT in IDFU.

Materials and Methods:

We evaluated PCT serum level as a marker of bacterial infection in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Sixty patients with diabetic foot ulcers were consecutively enrolled in the study. A total of 30 patients were clinically identified as IDFU by an expert clinician, taking as criteria for purulent discharges or at least two of manifestations of inflammation including warmth, redness, swelling and pain.

Results:

Procalcitonin, white blood cells (WBCs), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP), were found significantly higher in the IDFU group compared to the NIDFU group. The best cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity were 40.5 mm/h, 90% and 94% for ESR, 7.1 mg/dL, 80% and 74% for CRP, 0.21, 70% and 74% for PCT, and 7.7×109/L, 66% and 67% for WBCs, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ESR was the greatest (0.967; P < 0.001), followed by CRP (0.871; P < 0.001), PCT (0.729; P < 0.001), and finally WBCs (0.721; P = 0.001).

Infected Diabetic Foot Ulcer;Procalcitonin;Inflammatory Marker;Diabetic Arteriopathy Infected Diabetic Foot Ulcer;Procalcitonin;Inflammatory Marker;Diabetic Arteriopathy http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=13376 Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahdi Safaee Firouzabadi Mahdi Safaee Firouzabadi Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Morteza Izadi Morteza Izadi Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Sadegh Safaee Firouzabadi Mohammad Sadegh Safaee Firouzabadi Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ardakan University, Ardakan, IR Iran Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ardakan University, Ardakan, IR Iran Amin Saburi Amin Saburi Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Research Centre, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran; Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188600067 Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Research Centre, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran; Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188600067
en 10.5812/ijem.12470 Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in South Indian Women Using AES-2006 Criteria Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in South Indian Women Using AES-2006 Criteria research-article research-article Conclusions:

Anthropometric, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings showed significant differences among PCOS subgroups. The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had high insulin resistance (IR) and gonadotropic hormonal abnormalities, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls.

Results:

The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had more luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and high insulin resistance (IR) expressed as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. Similarly, the obese PCOS had high BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, LH, LH/FSH, fasting insulin, HOMA score (IR), and dyslipidemia, compared with lean PCOS and controls. Unilateral polycystic ovary was seen in 32 (15.7%) patients, and bilateral involvement in 172 (84.3%) patients. All the controls showed normal ovaries.

Background:

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, whose diagnosis is based on anthropometric, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic characteristics of PCOS in Asian Indians of South India, using the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006) diagnostic criteria.

Objectives:

To assess anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of PCOS subgroups and controls among South Indian women using the AES-2006 criteria.

Materials and Methods:

Two hundred and four women clinically diagnosed with PCOS, and 204 healthy women controls aged 17 to 35 years were evaluated. PCOS was diagnosed by clinical hyperandrogenism (HA), irregular menstruation (IM), and polycystic ovary (PCO). PCOS was further categorized into phenotypic subgroups including the IM+HA+PCO (n = 181, 89%), HA+PCO (n = 23, 11%), IM+HA (n = 0), and also into obese PCOS (n = 142, 70%) and lean PCOS (n = 62, 30%) using body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical characteristics were compared among the PCOS subgroups.

Conclusions:

Anthropometric, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings showed significant differences among PCOS subgroups. The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had high insulin resistance (IR) and gonadotropic hormonal abnormalities, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls.

Results:

The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had more luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and high insulin resistance (IR) expressed as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. Similarly, the obese PCOS had high BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, LH, LH/FSH, fasting insulin, HOMA score (IR), and dyslipidemia, compared with lean PCOS and controls. Unilateral polycystic ovary was seen in 32 (15.7%) patients, and bilateral involvement in 172 (84.3%) patients. All the controls showed normal ovaries.

Background:

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, whose diagnosis is based on anthropometric, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic characteristics of PCOS in Asian Indians of South India, using the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006) diagnostic criteria.

Objectives:

To assess anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of PCOS subgroups and controls among South Indian women using the AES-2006 criteria.

Materials and Methods:

Two hundred and four women clinically diagnosed with PCOS, and 204 healthy women controls aged 17 to 35 years were evaluated. PCOS was diagnosed by clinical hyperandrogenism (HA), irregular menstruation (IM), and polycystic ovary (PCO). PCOS was further categorized into phenotypic subgroups including the IM+HA+PCO (n = 181, 89%), HA+PCO (n = 23, 11%), IM+HA (n = 0), and also into obese PCOS (n = 142, 70%) and lean PCOS (n = 62, 30%) using body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical characteristics were compared among the PCOS subgroups.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome;Body Mass Index;HOMA Score;Insulin Resistance Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome;Body Mass Index;HOMA Score;Insulin Resistance http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12470 Sujatha Thathapudi Sujatha Thathapudi Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Vasavi Medical and Research Centre, Khairatabad, Hyderabad, India; Quarter No.7, Kamineni Hospital, LB Nagar, Hyderabad, India. Tel: +40-24023335 Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Vasavi Medical and Research Centre, Khairatabad, Hyderabad, India; Quarter No.7, Kamineni Hospital, LB Nagar, Hyderabad, India. Tel: +40-24023335 Vijayalakshmi Kodati Vijayalakshmi Kodati Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Geneticist and Research Coordinator, Vasavi Medical and Research Centre, Khairatabad, India Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Geneticist and Research Coordinator, Vasavi Medical and Research Centre, Khairatabad, India Jayashankar Erukkambattu Jayashankar Erukkambattu Department of Pathology, Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, LBnagar, Hyderabad, India Department of Pathology, Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, LBnagar, Hyderabad, India Anuradha Katragadda Anuradha Katragadda Department of Gynaecology, Anu’s Fertility Centre, Somajiguda, Hyderabad, India Department of Gynaecology, Anu’s Fertility Centre, Somajiguda, Hyderabad, India Uma Addepally Uma Addepally Department of Biotechnology, Research Coordinator, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, India Department of Biotechnology, Research Coordinator, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, India Qurratulain Hasan Qurratulain Hasan Senior Scientist and Geneticist, Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre and Vasavi Medical and Research Centre, Hyderabad, India Senior Scientist and Geneticist, Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre and Vasavi Medical and Research Centre, Hyderabad, India
en 10.5812/ijem.13759 Clinical Conundrums in Management of Hypothyroidism in Critically Ill Geriatric Patients Clinical Conundrums in Management of Hypothyroidism in Critically Ill Geriatric Patients review-article review-article Conclusions:

The current review is aimed at analyzing and managing various clinical aspects of hypothyroidism in hospitalized elderly, and critically ill geriatric patients.

Context:

Articles in various international and national bibliographic indices were extensively searched with an emphasis on thyroid and hypothyroid disorders, hypothyroidism in elderly hospitalized patients, hypothyroidism in critically ill geriatric population, thyroxine in elderly hypothyroid, drug interactions and thyroid hormones, and thyroid functions in elderly.

Evidence acquisition:

Entrez (including PubMed), NIH.gov, Medscape.com, WebMD.com, MedHelp.org, Search Medica, MD consult, yahoo.com, and google.com were searched. Manual search was performed on various textbooks of medicine, critical care, pharmacology, and endocrinology.

Results:

Thyroid function tests in elderly hospitalized patients must be interpreted with circumspection. The elderly are often exposed to high iodide content and critical care settings. This may occur because of either decreased iodine excretion or very high intake of iodine. This is especially true for elderly population with underlying acute or chronic kidney diseases or both. Amiodarone, with a very high iodine content, is also often used in this set of population. Moreover, other medications including iodinated contrast are often used in the critical care settings. These may affect different steps of thyroid hormone metabolism, and thereby complicate the interpretation of thyroid function tests.

Conclusions:

The current review is aimed at analyzing and managing various clinical aspects of hypothyroidism in hospitalized elderly, and critically ill geriatric patients.

Context:

Articles in various international and national bibliographic indices were extensively searched with an emphasis on thyroid and hypothyroid disorders, hypothyroidism in elderly hospitalized patients, hypothyroidism in critically ill geriatric population, thyroxine in elderly hypothyroid, drug interactions and thyroid hormones, and thyroid functions in elderly.

Evidence acquisition:

Entrez (including PubMed), NIH.gov, Medscape.com, WebMD.com, MedHelp.org, Search Medica, MD consult, yahoo.com, and google.com were searched. Manual search was performed on various textbooks of medicine, critical care, pharmacology, and endocrinology.

Results:

Thyroid function tests in elderly hospitalized patients must be interpreted with circumspection. The elderly are often exposed to high iodide content and critical care settings. This may occur because of either decreased iodine excretion or very high intake of iodine. This is especially true for elderly population with underlying acute or chronic kidney diseases or both. Amiodarone, with a very high iodine content, is also often used in this set of population. Moreover, other medications including iodinated contrast are often used in the critical care settings. These may affect different steps of thyroid hormone metabolism, and thereby complicate the interpretation of thyroid function tests.

Amiodarone;Kidney Failure;Chronic;Critical Illness;Hypothyroidism;Polypharmacy Amiodarone;Kidney Failure;Chronic;Critical Illness;Hypothyroidism;Polypharmacy http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=13759 Vishal Sehgal Vishal Sehgal The Commonwealth Medical College, Scranton, PA, USA; Department of Medicine, The Common wealth Medical College, Scranton, PA, USA The Commonwealth Medical College, Scranton, PA, USA; Department of Medicine, The Common wealth Medical College, Scranton, PA, USA Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Gian Sagar Medical College, Banur, Patiala, India Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Gian Sagar Medical College, Banur, Patiala, India Rinku Sehgal Rinku Sehgal The Wright Center for Graduate Medical education, Scranton, PA, USA The Wright Center for Graduate Medical education, Scranton, PA, USA Anurag Bajaj Anurag Bajaj The Wright Center for Graduate Medical education, Scranton, PA, USA The Wright Center for Graduate Medical education, Scranton, PA, USA