International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism Int J Endocrinol Metab http://www.endometabol.com 1726-913X 1726-9148 10.5812/ijem en jalali 2017 5 26 gregorian 2017 5 26 13 2
en 10.5812/ijem.22803 Cost-Benefit Analysis of Internet Therapeutic Intervention on Patients With Diabetes Cost-Benefit Analysis of Internet Therapeutic Intervention on Patients With Diabetes brief-report brief-report Conclusions

We have demonstrated that IBGMS, while not reaching statistical significance, may be associated with slightly reduced A1C and cost due to visiting physicians.

Results

There is a trend of lowered total cost in the intervention group compared to the control group. The control group spent $210.89 per year on visits to physicians; the intervention group spent $131.26 (P = 0.128). Patients in control group visited their endocrinologist 1.76 times per year, those in intervention group visited their endocrinologist 1.36 times per year, significantly less frequently than the control group (P = 0.014). Number of visits to other medical services is similar between the groups. Average A1C in intervention group is 7.57%, in control group is 7.69% (P = 0.309).

Background

With the emergence of IBGMS for allowing for patients to communicate their self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) readings with their health care providers, their impact on the management of diabetes is becoming well-supported with regards to clinical benefits. Their impact on healthcare costs, however, has yet to be investigated. This study aims to determine the cost-benefits of such interventions in comparison to routine care.

Objectives

To analyze the cost-benefit of an Internet Blood Glucose Monitoring Service (IBGMS) in comparison to routine diabetes care.

Patients and Methods

200 patients were surveyed to assess the cost associated with doctor appointments in the past 12 months. Annual number of visits to medical services for diabetes and costs of transportation, parking, and time taken off work for visits were surveyed. Self-reported frequency of SMBG and most recent A1C were also surveyed. We compared 100 patients who used the IBGMS with 100 patients who only used routine care.

Conclusions

We have demonstrated that IBGMS, while not reaching statistical significance, may be associated with slightly reduced A1C and cost due to visiting physicians.

Results

There is a trend of lowered total cost in the intervention group compared to the control group. The control group spent $210.89 per year on visits to physicians; the intervention group spent $131.26 (P = 0.128). Patients in control group visited their endocrinologist 1.76 times per year, those in intervention group visited their endocrinologist 1.36 times per year, significantly less frequently than the control group (P = 0.014). Number of visits to other medical services is similar between the groups. Average A1C in intervention group is 7.57%, in control group is 7.69% (P = 0.309).

Background

With the emergence of IBGMS for allowing for patients to communicate their self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) readings with their health care providers, their impact on the management of diabetes is becoming well-supported with regards to clinical benefits. Their impact on healthcare costs, however, has yet to be investigated. This study aims to determine the cost-benefits of such interventions in comparison to routine care.

Objectives

To analyze the cost-benefit of an Internet Blood Glucose Monitoring Service (IBGMS) in comparison to routine diabetes care.

Patients and Methods

200 patients were surveyed to assess the cost associated with doctor appointments in the past 12 months. Annual number of visits to medical services for diabetes and costs of transportation, parking, and time taken off work for visits were surveyed. Self-reported frequency of SMBG and most recent A1C were also surveyed. We compared 100 patients who used the IBGMS with 100 patients who only used routine care.

Diabetes Mellitus;Internet;Economics;Online Systems;Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring;Telemedicine;Cost-Benefit Analysis Diabetes Mellitus;Internet;Economics;Online Systems;Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring;Telemedicine;Cost-Benefit Analysis http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22803 Lan Deng Lan Deng Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Adam S. White Adam S. White Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Monika Pawlowska Monika Pawlowska Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Betty Pottinger Betty Pottinger Endocrine Research Society, Vancouver, Canada Endocrine Research Society, Vancouver, Canada Jessica Aydin Jessica Aydin Endocrine Research Society, Vancouver, Canada Endocrine Research Society, Vancouver, Canada Nelson Chow Nelson Chow Department of Biochemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Department of Biochemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Hugh D. Tildesley Hugh D. Tildesley Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Tel: +1-6046021011 , Fax: +1-6046029008 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Paul’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Tel: +1-6046021011 , Fax: +1-6046029008
en 10.5812/ijem.21696 The Risk Factors and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome in Women With Previous Gestational Diabetes The Risk Factors and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome in Women With Previous Gestational Diabetes research-article research-article Patients and Methods

We extracted the demographic characteristics of 110 women with GDM who had delivered during 2004 - 2010 in three main hospitals of Zanjan City, Iran. The patients were recalled to perform oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and other necessary tests for MetS diagnosis. Anthropometric measurements were recorded of all the participants.

Results

In this study, 110 women with a history of GDM were studied at one to six years since delivery. Among these women, 36 (32.7%) developed T2DM and 11 (10%) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Moreover, 22 women (20%) had developed MetS. among those with abnormal results in glycemic test, 93.6% had fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥ 95 mg/dL (≥ 5.27 mmol/L)at the time of GDM diagnosis in the index pregnancy that was significantly higher than the normal glycemic test (NGT) group with 42.9% being affected (OR, 19.55; P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference between those with abnormal results and NGT group in interval between delivery and performing laboratory tests (27 ± 18.8 and 18.5 ± 17.7 months, respectively; OR, 1.02; P = 0.02). No insulin use during pregnancy was discovered as a protective factor in women with a history of GDM (OR, 0.35; P = 0.01). Those with abnormal results were significantly different from NGT group in the number of parities (2.61 ± 1.4 vs. 2.05 ± 1.1, respectively; OR, 1.4; P = 0.03). The most common component of MetS among women with a history of GDM was FBS > 100 mg/dL (> 5.55 mmol/L).

Conclusions

Regarding the high incidence of the T2DM and MetS among women with a history of GDM, they should be screened at a regular interval for diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors.

Background

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects nearly 5% of pregnancies. Significant proportion of the women with previous GDM develops type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the next years, which indicates a higher risk in them than in the general population.

Objectives

We conducted this study to determine the risk factors and incidence of abnormal glucose level and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women with a history of GDM in a long period after delivery in our region.

Patients and Methods

We extracted the demographic characteristics of 110 women with GDM who had delivered during 2004 - 2010 in three main hospitals of Zanjan City, Iran. The patients were recalled to perform oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and other necessary tests for MetS diagnosis. Anthropometric measurements were recorded of all the participants.

Results

In this study, 110 women with a history of GDM were studied at one to six years since delivery. Among these women, 36 (32.7%) developed T2DM and 11 (10%) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Moreover, 22 women (20%) had developed MetS. among those with abnormal results in glycemic test, 93.6% had fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥ 95 mg/dL (≥ 5.27 mmol/L)at the time of GDM diagnosis in the index pregnancy that was significantly higher than the normal glycemic test (NGT) group with 42.9% being affected (OR, 19.55; P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference between those with abnormal results and NGT group in interval between delivery and performing laboratory tests (27 ± 18.8 and 18.5 ± 17.7 months, respectively; OR, 1.02; P = 0.02). No insulin use during pregnancy was discovered as a protective factor in women with a history of GDM (OR, 0.35; P = 0.01). Those with abnormal results were significantly different from NGT group in the number of parities (2.61 ± 1.4 vs. 2.05 ± 1.1, respectively; OR, 1.4; P = 0.03). The most common component of MetS among women with a history of GDM was FBS > 100 mg/dL (> 5.55 mmol/L).

Conclusions

Regarding the high incidence of the T2DM and MetS among women with a history of GDM, they should be screened at a regular interval for diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors.

Background

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects nearly 5% of pregnancies. Significant proportion of the women with previous GDM develops type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the next years, which indicates a higher risk in them than in the general population.

Objectives

We conducted this study to determine the risk factors and incidence of abnormal glucose level and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women with a history of GDM in a long period after delivery in our region.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus;Metabolic Syndrome;Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus;Risk Factors Gestational Diabetes Mellitus;Metabolic Syndrome;Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus;Risk Factors http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=21696 Majid Valizadeh Majid Valizadeh Metabolic Disease Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran Metabolic Disease Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran Nooshin Alavi Nooshin Alavi Metabolic Disease Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran Metabolic Disease Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran Saeideh Mazloomzadeh Saeideh Mazloomzadeh Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran Zahra Piri Zahra Piri Student Research Committee, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran; Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128205320 Student Research Committee, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran; Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128205320 Hamidreza Amirmoghadami Hamidreza Amirmoghadami Medical Laboratory ,Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran Medical Laboratory ,Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.19678 Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the Treatment of Obesity: A Critical Review Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the Treatment of Obesity: A Critical Review review-article review-article Evidence Acquisition

We searched PubMed, Google scholar and the Cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to December 2013.

Results

In this review, the efficacy and safety of the more commonly used CAM methods for the treatment of obesity, namely herbal supplements, acupuncture, and non-invasive body-contouring, are briefly discussed. The evidence supporting the effectiveness and safety of these methods is either lacking or point to a negligible clinical benefit, barely surpassing that of the placebo. Furthermore, several limitations are observed in the available scientific literature. These shortcomings include, without being limited to, uncontrolled trial designs, non-random allocation of subjects to treatment arms, small number of patients enrolled, short durations of follow-up, and ambiguous clinical and laboratory endpoints.

Context

Obesity and its associated morbidities pose a major health hazard to the public. Despite a multiplex of available diet and exercise programs for losing and maintaining weight, over the past years, interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for obesity treatment has greatly increased.

Conclusions

Further investigations are necessary to accurately determine the efficacy, safety, standard dosage/procedure, and potential side effects of the various CAM methods currently in use.

Evidence Acquisition

We searched PubMed, Google scholar and the Cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to December 2013.

Results

In this review, the efficacy and safety of the more commonly used CAM methods for the treatment of obesity, namely herbal supplements, acupuncture, and non-invasive body-contouring, are briefly discussed. The evidence supporting the effectiveness and safety of these methods is either lacking or point to a negligible clinical benefit, barely surpassing that of the placebo. Furthermore, several limitations are observed in the available scientific literature. These shortcomings include, without being limited to, uncontrolled trial designs, non-random allocation of subjects to treatment arms, small number of patients enrolled, short durations of follow-up, and ambiguous clinical and laboratory endpoints.

Context

Obesity and its associated morbidities pose a major health hazard to the public. Despite a multiplex of available diet and exercise programs for losing and maintaining weight, over the past years, interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for obesity treatment has greatly increased.

Conclusions

Further investigations are necessary to accurately determine the efficacy, safety, standard dosage/procedure, and potential side effects of the various CAM methods currently in use.

Weight Loss;Obesity;Biliopancreatic Diversion;Complementary Therapies;Dietary Supplements;Acupuncture Therapy;Laser Therapy;Treatment Outcome Weight Loss;Obesity;Biliopancreatic Diversion;Complementary Therapies;Dietary Supplements;Acupuncture Therapy;Laser Therapy;Treatment Outcome http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19678 Alireza Esteghamati Alireza Esteghamati Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Fax: +98-2164432466, Tel: +98-2188417918 Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Fax: +98-2164432466, Tel: +98-2188417918 Tina Mazaheri Tina Mazaheri Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mona Vahidi Rad Mona Vahidi Rad Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sina Noshad Sina Noshad Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.24660 In Vivo and In Vitro Evidences of Dehydroepiandrosterone Protective Role on the Cardiovascular System In Vivo and In Vitro Evidences of Dehydroepiandrosterone Protective Role on the Cardiovascular System review-article review-article Conclusions

The identification of the beneficial cardiovascular effects of DHEA (S) and a better understanding of the involved mechanisms should be helpful to develop new strategies or pharmacologic approaches for many lethal diseases in Western countries.

Context

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester, Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S) have been considered as putative anti-aging hormones for many years. Indeed, while DHEAS the most abundant circulating hormone, its concentration is markedly decreased upon aging and early epidemiologic trials have revealed a strong inverse correlation between the hormone concentrations and the occurrence of several dysfunctions frequently encountered in the elderly. Naturally, hormonal supplementation has been rapidly suggested to prevent DHEA (S) deficiency and therefore, age-related development of these pathologies, using the same strategy as estrogen replacement therapy proposed in postmenopausal women.

Results

In this short review, we have focused on the cardiovascular action of DHEA. We started by analyzing evidences in favor of a strong inverse association between DHEA (S) levels and the cardiovascular risk as demonstrated in multiple observational epidemiologic studies for several decades. Then we discussed the different trials aimed at supplementing DHEA (S), both in animals and human, for preventing cardiovascular diseases and we analyzed the possible reasons for the discrepancy observed among the results of some studies. Finally, we presented putative molecular mechanisms of action for DHEA (S), demonstrated in vitro in different models of vascular and cardiac cells, highlighting the complexity of the involved signaling pathways.

Evidence Acquisition

All references were searched using PubMed and the following strategy: our initial selection included all articles in English and we sorted them with the following keywords: “DHEA or DHEA-S” and “heart or vascular or endothelium or cardiovascular disease”. The search was limited to neither the publication date nor specific journals. The final selection was made according to the relevance of the article content with the aims of the review. According to these criteria, fewer than 10% of the articles retrieved at the first step were discarded.

Conclusions

The identification of the beneficial cardiovascular effects of DHEA (S) and a better understanding of the involved mechanisms should be helpful to develop new strategies or pharmacologic approaches for many lethal diseases in Western countries.

Context

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester, Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S) have been considered as putative anti-aging hormones for many years. Indeed, while DHEAS the most abundant circulating hormone, its concentration is markedly decreased upon aging and early epidemiologic trials have revealed a strong inverse correlation between the hormone concentrations and the occurrence of several dysfunctions frequently encountered in the elderly. Naturally, hormonal supplementation has been rapidly suggested to prevent DHEA (S) deficiency and therefore, age-related development of these pathologies, using the same strategy as estrogen replacement therapy proposed in postmenopausal women.

Results

In this short review, we have focused on the cardiovascular action of DHEA. We started by analyzing evidences in favor of a strong inverse association between DHEA (S) levels and the cardiovascular risk as demonstrated in multiple observational epidemiologic studies for several decades. Then we discussed the different trials aimed at supplementing DHEA (S), both in animals and human, for preventing cardiovascular diseases and we analyzed the possible reasons for the discrepancy observed among the results of some studies. Finally, we presented putative molecular mechanisms of action for DHEA (S), demonstrated in vitro in different models of vascular and cardiac cells, highlighting the complexity of the involved signaling pathways.

Evidence Acquisition

All references were searched using PubMed and the following strategy: our initial selection included all articles in English and we sorted them with the following keywords: “DHEA or DHEA-S” and “heart or vascular or endothelium or cardiovascular disease”. The search was limited to neither the publication date nor specific journals. The final selection was made according to the relevance of the article content with the aims of the review. According to these criteria, fewer than 10% of the articles retrieved at the first step were discarded.

Dehydroepiandrosterone;Endothelium;Myocytes, Cardiac;Cardiovascular System;Disease;Steroids Dehydroepiandrosterone;Endothelium;Myocytes, Cardiac;Cardiovascular System;Disease;Steroids http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24660 Tiphaine Mannic Tiphaine Mannic Department of Human Protein Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Genetics and laboratory Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Genetics and laboratory Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Tel: +41-223795775, Fax: +41-223795502 Department of Human Protein Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Genetics and laboratory Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Genetics and laboratory Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Tel: +41-223795775, Fax: +41-223795502 Joanna Viguie Joanna Viguie Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Michel Florian Rossier Michel Florian Rossier Department of Human Protein Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Service of Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology, Central Institute of the Hospital of Valais, Sion, Switzerland Department of Human Protein Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Service of Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology, Central Institute of the Hospital of Valais, Sion, Switzerland
en 10.5812/ijem.25969 Beneficial Effect of Troxerutin on Diabetes-Induced Vascular Damages in Rat Aorta: Histopathological Alterations and Antioxidation Mechanism Beneficial Effect of Troxerutin on Diabetes-Induced Vascular Damages in Rat Aorta: Histopathological Alterations and Antioxidation Mechanism research-article research-article Conclusions

Troxerutin may reduce the vascular complications and tissue injuries induced by chronic diabetes in rat aorta through increasing the activity of tissue antioxidant system and reducing the level of lipid peroxidation.

Materials and Methods

Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8/each): control, control plus troxerutin, diabetic and diabetic plus troxerutin. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) and lasted for 10 weeks. Troxerutin was administered orally in concentration of 150 mg/kg/daily for one month before killing rats. At the end of treatment period, thoracic aorta was isolated and divided into two parts; one part was immersed in 10% formalin for histopathological evaluations and the other was frozen by liquid nitrogen for assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA, the main product of lipid peroxidation), activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX).

Results

Lipid deposition in tunica intimae and media, thickening and structural deformity of vascular tissues as well as the level of plasma glucose and aortic tissue levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly increased in diabetic rats compared to control ones (P < 0.05). Troxerutin significantly reduced the severity of all vascular histopathological damages in treated versus untreated diabetic rats. In addition, treatment of diabetic rats with troxerutin significantly decreased the levels of MDA (5.1 ± 0.3 vs. 9.3 ± 1.2 nmol/mL) (P < 0.01) and increased the activity of antioxidant enzyme GPX compared to untreated-diabetic groups.

Background

Diabetes is associated with micro- and macro-vascular complications affecting several organs. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the etiology of vascular disease in diabetes.

Objectives

The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of troxerutin on diabetes-induced histopathological damages in rat aorta with focusing on its antioxidative actions.

Conclusions

Troxerutin may reduce the vascular complications and tissue injuries induced by chronic diabetes in rat aorta through increasing the activity of tissue antioxidant system and reducing the level of lipid peroxidation.

Materials and Methods

Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8/each): control, control plus troxerutin, diabetic and diabetic plus troxerutin. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) and lasted for 10 weeks. Troxerutin was administered orally in concentration of 150 mg/kg/daily for one month before killing rats. At the end of treatment period, thoracic aorta was isolated and divided into two parts; one part was immersed in 10% formalin for histopathological evaluations and the other was frozen by liquid nitrogen for assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA, the main product of lipid peroxidation), activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX).

Results

Lipid deposition in tunica intimae and media, thickening and structural deformity of vascular tissues as well as the level of plasma glucose and aortic tissue levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly increased in diabetic rats compared to control ones (P < 0.05). Troxerutin significantly reduced the severity of all vascular histopathological damages in treated versus untreated diabetic rats. In addition, treatment of diabetic rats with troxerutin significantly decreased the levels of MDA (5.1 ± 0.3 vs. 9.3 ± 1.2 nmol/mL) (P < 0.01) and increased the activity of antioxidant enzyme GPX compared to untreated-diabetic groups.

Background

Diabetes is associated with micro- and macro-vascular complications affecting several organs. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the etiology of vascular disease in diabetes.

Objectives

The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of troxerutin on diabetes-induced histopathological damages in rat aorta with focusing on its antioxidative actions.

Aorta;Diabetes;Troxerutin;Vascular Disease;Oxidative Stress Aorta;Diabetes;Troxerutin;Vascular Disease;Oxidative Stress http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25969 Reza Badalzadeh Reza Badalzadeh Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Nayeleh Layeghzadeh Nayeleh Layeghzadeh Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Alireza Alihemmati Alireza Alihemmati Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4133364664 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4133364664 Mustafa Mohammadi Mustafa Mohammadi Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.23542 Resveratrol-Dependent Down-regulation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products and Oxidative Stress in Kidney of Rats With Diabetes Resveratrol-Dependent Down-regulation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products and Oxidative Stress in Kidney of Rats With Diabetes research-article research-article Conclusions

These results revealed that resveratrol has beneficial effects on kidney by extenuating the oxidative stress and down-regulation of RAGE expression.

Results

In resveratrol-treated rats with diabetes, malondialdehyde levels, plasma glucose and expression of RAGE were significantly reduced compared with the untreated group. Moreover, the total antioxidant and insulin levels significantly increased in treated rats. There was no significant difference in the AGEs contents among all the groups.

Background

Millions of people in the world have diabetes mellitus and its prevalence is growing. Oxidative stress, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) play key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. New and safe strategies of remedy are needed for this disease.

Objectives

We hypothesized that resveratrol may exert a renal protective effect on diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods

Male rats with diabetes were treated with or without resveratrol as 1, 5, 10 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days. The total AGEs and malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissues were determined by spectrofluorimetric method and the insulin level was assayed using ELISA. The total antioxidant capacity contents in kidney and the glucose in plasma were measured by a colorimetric assay. The expression of RAGE was assayed in kidneys of all animals using quantitative PCR.

Conclusions

These results revealed that resveratrol has beneficial effects on kidney by extenuating the oxidative stress and down-regulation of RAGE expression.

Results

In resveratrol-treated rats with diabetes, malondialdehyde levels, plasma glucose and expression of RAGE were significantly reduced compared with the untreated group. Moreover, the total antioxidant and insulin levels significantly increased in treated rats. There was no significant difference in the AGEs contents among all the groups.

Background

Millions of people in the world have diabetes mellitus and its prevalence is growing. Oxidative stress, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) play key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. New and safe strategies of remedy are needed for this disease.

Objectives

We hypothesized that resveratrol may exert a renal protective effect on diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods

Male rats with diabetes were treated with or without resveratrol as 1, 5, 10 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days. The total AGEs and malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissues were determined by spectrofluorimetric method and the insulin level was assayed using ELISA. The total antioxidant capacity contents in kidney and the glucose in plasma were measured by a colorimetric assay. The expression of RAGE was assayed in kidneys of all animals using quantitative PCR.

Resveratrol;Diabetes Mellitus;Advanced Glycation End-product;Oxidative Stress Resveratrol;Diabetes Mellitus;Advanced Glycation End-product;Oxidative Stress http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23542 Heresh Moridi Heresh Moridi Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Jamshid Karimi Jamshid Karimi Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138276293, Fax: +98-8138380208 Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138276293, Fax: +98-8138380208 Nasrin Sheikh Nasrin Sheikh Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Massoud Saidijam Massoud Saidijam Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Reza Yadegarazari Reza Yadegarazari Department of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Khazaei Mohammad Khazaei Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Iraj Khodadadi Iraj Khodadadi Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Heidar Tavilani Heidar Tavilani Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Hossein Piri Hossein Piri Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Soheila Asadi Soheila Asadi Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Sadegh Zarei Sadegh Zarei Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Azam Rezaei Azam Rezaei Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.5812/ijem.25389 An Application of Association Rule Mining to Extract Risk Pattern for Type 2 Diabetes Using Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study Database An Application of Association Rule Mining to Extract Risk Pattern for Type 2 Diabetes Using Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study Database research-article research-article Conclusions

Our study showed that ARM is a useful approach in determining which combinations of variables or predictors occur together frequently, in people who will develop diabetes. The ARM focuses on joint exposure to different combinations of risk factors, and not the predictors alone.

Background

Type 2 diabetes, common and serious global health concern, had an estimated worldwide prevalence of 366 million in 2011, which is expected to rise to 552 million people, by 2030, unless urgent action is taken.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to identify risk patterns for type 2 diabetes incidence using association rule mining (ARM).

Patients and Methods

A population of 6647 individuals without diabetes, aged ≥ 20 years at inclusion, was followed for 10-12 years, to analyze risk patterns for diabetes occurrence. Study variables included demographic and anthropometric characteristics, smoking status, medical and drug history and laboratory measures.

Results

In the case of women, the results showed that impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), in combination with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, family history of diabetes, wrist circumference > 16.5 cm and waist to height ≥ 0.5 can increase the risk for developing diabetes. For men, a combination of IGT, IFG, length of stay in the city (> 40 years), central obesity, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio ≥ 5.3, low physical activity, chronic kidney disease and wrist circumference > 18.5 cm were identified as risk patterns for diabetes occurrence.

Conclusions

Our study showed that ARM is a useful approach in determining which combinations of variables or predictors occur together frequently, in people who will develop diabetes. The ARM focuses on joint exposure to different combinations of risk factors, and not the predictors alone.

Background

Type 2 diabetes, common and serious global health concern, had an estimated worldwide prevalence of 366 million in 2011, which is expected to rise to 552 million people, by 2030, unless urgent action is taken.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to identify risk patterns for type 2 diabetes incidence using association rule mining (ARM).

Patients and Methods

A population of 6647 individuals without diabetes, aged ≥ 20 years at inclusion, was followed for 10-12 years, to analyze risk patterns for diabetes occurrence. Study variables included demographic and anthropometric characteristics, smoking status, medical and drug history and laboratory measures.

Results

In the case of women, the results showed that impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), in combination with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, family history of diabetes, wrist circumference > 16.5 cm and waist to height ≥ 0.5 can increase the risk for developing diabetes. For men, a combination of IGT, IFG, length of stay in the city (> 40 years), central obesity, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio ≥ 5.3, low physical activity, chronic kidney disease and wrist circumference > 18.5 cm were identified as risk patterns for diabetes occurrence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2;Data Mining;Body Mass Index Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2;Data Mining;Body Mass Index http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25389 Azra Ramezankhani Azra Ramezankhani Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Omid Pournik Omid Pournik Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Jamal Shahrabi Jamal Shahrabi Department of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, IR Iran Fereidoun Azizi Fereidoun Azizi Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farzad Hadaegh Farzad Hadaegh Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122409301, Fax: +98-2122402463 Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122409301, Fax: +98-2122402463
en 10.5812/ijem.18841 Acromegaly With Cardiomyopathy, Cardiac Thrombus and Hemorrhagic Cerebral Infarct: A Case Report of Therapeutic Dilemma With Review of Literature Acromegaly With Cardiomyopathy, Cardiac Thrombus and Hemorrhagic Cerebral Infarct: A Case Report of Therapeutic Dilemma With Review of Literature case-report case-report Conclusions

The primary treatment for GH-producing adenoma is surgery; however, this patient has high surgical risk from her severe cardiomyopathy. Radiotherapy poses a greater risk because of increased cerebrovascular mortality. Somatostatin receptor ligands are significantly associated with improvement of cardiovascular and hemodynamic parameters. Dopamine agonists must be considered regardless of prolactin level and immunostaining. The risks and benefits of any treatment must be emphasized in the presence of conflicting clinical features such as in the case reported.

Introduction

Cardiomyopathy with congestive heart failure (CHF) is a rare complication of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma occurring in 3% of cases. We report a case of acromegaly complicated not only by CHF but also by the presence of intracardiac thrombus and cardioembolic stroke with hemorrhagic formation.

Case Presentation

A 46-year-old Filipino female presented with amenorrhea, progressive coarsening of facial features, deepening of voice and enlargement of digits. She experienced easy fatigability, orthopnea and bipedal edema. The cardiac apex beat was sustained and displaced. Growth hormone was nonsuppressible. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage. Incidentally, there was a left frontal lobe cortical infarct with hemorrhagic component. The echocardiogram demonstrated cardiomyopathic changes with a left ventricular thrombus.

Conclusions

The primary treatment for GH-producing adenoma is surgery; however, this patient has high surgical risk from her severe cardiomyopathy. Radiotherapy poses a greater risk because of increased cerebrovascular mortality. Somatostatin receptor ligands are significantly associated with improvement of cardiovascular and hemodynamic parameters. Dopamine agonists must be considered regardless of prolactin level and immunostaining. The risks and benefits of any treatment must be emphasized in the presence of conflicting clinical features such as in the case reported.

Introduction

Cardiomyopathy with congestive heart failure (CHF) is a rare complication of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma occurring in 3% of cases. We report a case of acromegaly complicated not only by CHF but also by the presence of intracardiac thrombus and cardioembolic stroke with hemorrhagic formation.

Case Presentation

A 46-year-old Filipino female presented with amenorrhea, progressive coarsening of facial features, deepening of voice and enlargement of digits. She experienced easy fatigability, orthopnea and bipedal edema. The cardiac apex beat was sustained and displaced. Growth hormone was nonsuppressible. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage. Incidentally, there was a left frontal lobe cortical infarct with hemorrhagic component. The echocardiogram demonstrated cardiomyopathic changes with a left ventricular thrombus.

Acromegaly;Cardiomyopathy;Cerebral Infarct Acromegaly;Cardiomyopathy;Cerebral Infarct http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18841 Erick Mendoza Erick Mendoza Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines; Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines. Tel: +63-9228699893 Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines; Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines. Tel: +63-9228699893 Chandy Lou Malong Chandy Lou Malong Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines Mary Jane Tanchee-Ngo Mary Jane Tanchee-Ngo Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines Leilani Mercado-Asis Leilani Mercado-Asis Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines
en 10.5812/ijem.20776 Prevalence of Lipohypertrophy and Associated Risk Factors in Insulin-Treated Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence of Lipohypertrophy and Associated Risk Factors in Insulin-Treated Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus research-article research-article Conclusions

The LH is a common problem in insulin-treated Jordanian patients with T2DM. More efforts are needed to educate patients and health workers on simple interventions such as using shorter needles and frequent rotation of the insulin injection sites to avoid LH and improve glycemic control.

Results

The overall prevalence of LH was 37.3% (27.4% grade 1, 9.7% grade 2, and 0.2% grade 3). The LH was significantly associated with the duration of diabetes, needle length, duration of insulin therapy, lack of systematic rotation of insulin injection sites, and poor glycemic control.

Background

Secondary failure of oral hypoglycemic agents is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); thus, patients often need insulin therapy. The most common complication of insulin treatment is lipohypertrophy (LH).

Objectives

This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of LH among insulin-treated patients with Patients with T2DM, to identify the risk factors for the development of LH, and to examine the association between LH and glycemic control.

Patients and Methods

A total of 1090 patients with T2DM aged 20 to 89 years, who attended the diabetes clinics at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics (NCDEG, Amman, Jordan) between October 2011 and January 2012, were enrolled. The presence of LH was examined by inspection and palpation of insulin injection sites at the time of the visit as relevant clinical and laboratory data were obtained. The LH was defined as a local tumor-like swelling of subcutaneous fatty tissue at the site of repeated insulin injections.

Conclusions

The LH is a common problem in insulin-treated Jordanian patients with T2DM. More efforts are needed to educate patients and health workers on simple interventions such as using shorter needles and frequent rotation of the insulin injection sites to avoid LH and improve glycemic control.

Results

The overall prevalence of LH was 37.3% (27.4% grade 1, 9.7% grade 2, and 0.2% grade 3). The LH was significantly associated with the duration of diabetes, needle length, duration of insulin therapy, lack of systematic rotation of insulin injection sites, and poor glycemic control.

Background

Secondary failure of oral hypoglycemic agents is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); thus, patients often need insulin therapy. The most common complication of insulin treatment is lipohypertrophy (LH).

Objectives

This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of LH among insulin-treated patients with Patients with T2DM, to identify the risk factors for the development of LH, and to examine the association between LH and glycemic control.

Patients and Methods

A total of 1090 patients with T2DM aged 20 to 89 years, who attended the diabetes clinics at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics (NCDEG, Amman, Jordan) between October 2011 and January 2012, were enrolled. The presence of LH was examined by inspection and palpation of insulin injection sites at the time of the visit as relevant clinical and laboratory data were obtained. The LH was defined as a local tumor-like swelling of subcutaneous fatty tissue at the site of repeated insulin injections.

Lipodystrophy;Insulin;Diabetes mellitus Lipodystrophy;Insulin;Diabetes mellitus http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20776 Mo’men Al Ajlouni Mo’men Al Ajlouni Prince Sultan Military Medical, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Prince Sultan Military Medical, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Mousa Abujbara Mousa Abujbara The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, Jordan The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, Jordan Anwar Batieha Anwar Batieha Department of Community Medicine and Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Department of Community Medicine and Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Kamel Ajlouni Kamel Ajlouni The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, Jordan; The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, P. O. Box: 13165, Amman, Jordan. Tel: +96-265347810, Fax: +96-265356670 The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, Jordan; The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, P. O. Box: 13165, Amman, Jordan. Tel: +96-265347810, Fax: +96-265356670
en 10.5812/ijem.13(2)2015.29248 Islamic Fasting and Thyroid Hormones Islamic Fasting and Thyroid Hormones editorial editorial Fasting;Hormones;Islam Fasting;Hormones;Islam http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=29248 Fereidoun Azizi Fereidoun Azizi Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122409309 Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122409309