International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism Int J Endocrinol Metab http://www.endometabol.com 1726-913X 1726-9148 10.5812/ijem en jalali 2017 6 24 gregorian 2017 6 24 13 3
en 26401143 10.5812/ijem.25542v2 Relative Importance of Lean and Fat Mass on Bone Mineral Density in Iranian Children and Adolescents Relative Importance of Lean and Fat Mass on Bone Mineral Density in Iranian Children and Adolescents research-article research-article Conclusions

These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of BMD in both genders. Physical activity appears to positively impact on lean mass and needs to be considered in physical education and health-enhancing programs in Iranian school children.

Background

Body weight is made up of lean and fat mass and both are involved in growth and development. Impression of these two components in bone density accrual has been controversial.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fat and lean mass and bone density in Iranian children and adolescents.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional study was performed on 472 subjects (235 girls, 237 boys) aged 9-18 years old in Fars Province. The participants' weight, height, waist circumference, stage of puberty, and level of physical activity were recorded. Bone Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD), total body fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Results

Results showed that 12.2% of boys and 12.3% of girls were overweight and 5.5% of boys and 4.7% of girls were obese. Obese individuals had greater total body BMD (0.96 ± 0.11) than normal-weight ones (0.86 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). We found the greatest correlation between total body BMD and total body lean mass (R = 0.78. P < 0.001) and the least correlation with total body fat percentage (R = 0.03, P = 0.44). Total lean mass in more active boys was 38.1 ± 10.9 and in less active boys was 32.3 ± 11.0 (P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that age and total body lean mass were independent factors of BMD in growing children and adolescents.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of BMD in both genders. Physical activity appears to positively impact on lean mass and needs to be considered in physical education and health-enhancing programs in Iranian school children.

Background

Body weight is made up of lean and fat mass and both are involved in growth and development. Impression of these two components in bone density accrual has been controversial.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fat and lean mass and bone density in Iranian children and adolescents.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional study was performed on 472 subjects (235 girls, 237 boys) aged 9-18 years old in Fars Province. The participants' weight, height, waist circumference, stage of puberty, and level of physical activity were recorded. Bone Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD), total body fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Results

Results showed that 12.2% of boys and 12.3% of girls were overweight and 5.5% of boys and 4.7% of girls were obese. Obese individuals had greater total body BMD (0.96 ± 0.11) than normal-weight ones (0.86 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). We found the greatest correlation between total body BMD and total body lean mass (R = 0.78. P < 0.001) and the least correlation with total body fat percentage (R = 0.03, P = 0.44). Total lean mass in more active boys was 38.1 ± 10.9 and in less active boys was 32.3 ± 11.0 (P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that age and total body lean mass were independent factors of BMD in growing children and adolescents.

Child;Bone Density;Obesity;Body Fat;Lean Mass Child;Bone Density;Obesity;Body Fat;Lean Mass http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25542 Marjan Jeddi Marjan Jeddi Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 71345-1414, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7136281569, Fax: +987136473096 Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 71345-1414, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7136281569, Fax: +987136473096 Gholamhossein Ranjbar Omrani Gholamhossein Ranjbar Omrani Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Sayed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi Sayed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Zahra Bagheri Zahra Bagheri Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Marzieh Bakhshayeshkaram Marzieh Bakhshayeshkaram Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 26401144 10.5812/ijem.28383v2 Pituitary Stone or Calcified Pituitary Tumor? Three Cases and Literature Review Pituitary Stone or Calcified Pituitary Tumor? Three Cases and Literature Review case-report case-report Conclusions

Radiological findings pleaded for a pituitary stone, but calcified adenomas in women, and calcified craniopharyngioma in the pediatric case could not be excluded, as our three patients were not operated on.

Introduction

Pituitary stone or pituitary calculus is a scientific enigma characterized by a large calcification in the pituitary sella. It can be discovered incidentally or in a patient with endocrine and/or neurological problems. Its mechanism is not understood. In this article, we described three patients harboring a large pituitary calcification.

Case Presentation

The first case was observed in a 27-year-old woman who consulted for secondary amenorrhea. The second case concerned a woman who consulted for infertility, and the third one was observed in an 11-year and nine-month-old girl who was sent to our department for short stature. Clinical examination was normal in both adults. The pediatric case had dwarfism with lack of pubertal development. Hormonal assessment showed hyperprolactinemia in both women and thyrotroph and somatotroph deficits in the child. Radiologic exploration discovered pituitary calcifications measuring 10, 11, and 45 mm without any cystic or solid mass.

Conclusions

Radiological findings pleaded for a pituitary stone, but calcified adenomas in women, and calcified craniopharyngioma in the pediatric case could not be excluded, as our three patients were not operated on.

Introduction

Pituitary stone or pituitary calculus is a scientific enigma characterized by a large calcification in the pituitary sella. It can be discovered incidentally or in a patient with endocrine and/or neurological problems. Its mechanism is not understood. In this article, we described three patients harboring a large pituitary calcification.

Case Presentation

The first case was observed in a 27-year-old woman who consulted for secondary amenorrhea. The second case concerned a woman who consulted for infertility, and the third one was observed in an 11-year and nine-month-old girl who was sent to our department for short stature. Clinical examination was normal in both adults. The pediatric case had dwarfism with lack of pubertal development. Hormonal assessment showed hyperprolactinemia in both women and thyrotroph and somatotroph deficits in the child. Radiologic exploration discovered pituitary calcifications measuring 10, 11, and 45 mm without any cystic or solid mass.

Pituitary Gland;Heterotopic Ossification;Hyperprolactinemia;Hypopituitarism Pituitary Gland;Heterotopic Ossification;Hyperprolactinemia;Hypopituitarism http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28383 Farida Chentli Farida Chentli Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bab El Oued Teaching Hospital, Algiers, Algeria; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bab El Oued Teaching Hospital, Algiers, Algeria. Fax: +213-21960040 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bab El Oued Teaching Hospital, Algiers, Algeria; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bab El Oued Teaching Hospital, Algiers, Algeria. Fax: +213-21960040 Amel Safer-Tabi Amel Safer-Tabi Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bab El Oued Teaching Hospital, Algiers, Algeria Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bab El Oued Teaching Hospital, Algiers, Algeria
en 26401145 10.5812/ijem.28557v2 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Apparently Simple yet Challenging Diagnosis Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Apparently Simple yet Challenging Diagnosis editorial editorial Diagnosis;Polycystic Ovary Syndrome;Reference Standards Diagnosis;Polycystic Ovary Syndrome;Reference Standards http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28557 Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122432500 Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122432500
en 26425127 10.5812/ijem.26128v2 A Longitudinal Study of Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in a Non-Mediterranean Population A Longitudinal Study of Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in a Non-Mediterranean Population research-article research-article Conclusions

Adherence to the MedDiet, according to MDS and Sofi-MDS, may not predict MetS components and MetS incidence after 3 years of follow-up in Iranian adult populations.

Results

After adjusting for potential confounders, neither higher MDS nor higher Sofi-MDS were significantly associated with the mean values of MetS components and the risk of metabolic abnormalities incidence after 3 years follow-up. During the 3 years of follow-up, 246 developed MetS were identified. In multivariable model, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of developing MetS did not differ significantly in participants with the highest tertile of the MDS (OR (95% CI): 0.88 (0.62 - 1.23)) or sofi-MDS (OR (95% CI):1.12 (0.77 - 1.62)) compared to those in the lowest tertiles.

Background

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the association of the diet on MetS in non-Mediterranean populations remains unclear.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate whether adherence to the MedDiet is related to the incident MetS and its components during a 3-year follow-up among Iranian adults.

Patients and Methods

Longitudinal associations between the MedDiet and MetS components were investigated on 2241 adults, aged 18 - 74 years, without type 2 diabetes selected from participants of the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS). The association between the MedDiet and MetS incidence was also examined in 1661 participants, free of Mets at baseline. Adherence to the MedDiet was assessed using the traditional Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and a recently posteriori adaptation of the MDS of Sofi et al. (Sofi-MDS). MetS was defined according to the recent interim consensus.

Conclusions

Adherence to the MedDiet, according to MDS and Sofi-MDS, may not predict MetS components and MetS incidence after 3 years of follow-up in Iranian adult populations.

Results

After adjusting for potential confounders, neither higher MDS nor higher Sofi-MDS were significantly associated with the mean values of MetS components and the risk of metabolic abnormalities incidence after 3 years follow-up. During the 3 years of follow-up, 246 developed MetS were identified. In multivariable model, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of developing MetS did not differ significantly in participants with the highest tertile of the MDS (OR (95% CI): 0.88 (0.62 - 1.23)) or sofi-MDS (OR (95% CI):1.12 (0.77 - 1.62)) compared to those in the lowest tertiles.

Background

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the association of the diet on MetS in non-Mediterranean populations remains unclear.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate whether adherence to the MedDiet is related to the incident MetS and its components during a 3-year follow-up among Iranian adults.

Patients and Methods

Longitudinal associations between the MedDiet and MetS components were investigated on 2241 adults, aged 18 - 74 years, without type 2 diabetes selected from participants of the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS). The association between the MedDiet and MetS incidence was also examined in 1661 participants, free of Mets at baseline. Adherence to the MedDiet was assessed using the traditional Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and a recently posteriori adaptation of the MDS of Sofi et al. (Sofi-MDS). MetS was defined according to the recent interim consensus.

Metabolic Syndrome;Mediterranean Diet;Metabolic Syndrome Components Metabolic Syndrome;Mediterranean Diet;Metabolic Syndrome Components http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26128 Parvin Mirmiran Parvin Mirmiran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nazanin Moslehi Nazanin Moslehi Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hessameddin Mahmoudof Hessameddin Mahmoudof Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Prevention of Malnutrition and Linked Pathologies, University Montpellier South of France, Montpellier, France Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Prevention of Malnutrition and Linked Pathologies, University Montpellier South of France, Montpellier, France Mahbubeh Sadeghi Mahbubeh Sadeghi Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fereidoun Azizi Fereidoun Azizi Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122432500, Fax: +98-2122416264 Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122432500, Fax: +98-2122416264
en 26401142 10.5812/ijem.24618v2 Inventory of Determinants of Obesity-Related Behaviors in Adolescents: Development and Psychometric Characteristics Inventory of Determinants of Obesity-Related Behaviors in Adolescents: Development and Psychometric Characteristics research-article research-article Conclusions

Results provided initial evidence that the IDOBA is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring determinants of obesity-related behaviors in Iranian adolescents, indicating that the questionnaire can be used in future weight management programs for Tehranian adolescents.

Results

All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by adolescents. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for eight subscales. No ceiling effects were observed. Detected floor effects ranged from 0.2% for perceived acceptability subscale score to 18.8% for lack of threat subscale score. The EFA suggested an eight-factor construct and the results of the CFA indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed model. All subscales demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient, 0.42 - 0.91) over one month.

Objectives

This study aimed to develop and assess a questionnaire for measuring determinants of obesity-related behaviors in Tehranian adolescents.

Patients and Methods

Based on the results of a qualitative study and an extensive literature review, the 44-item “Inventory of determinants of obesity-related behaviors in adolescents (IDOBA)” with eight subscales was developed: 1) unhealthy nutrition and physical inactivity; 2) stress-related eating; 3) perceived inability; 4) perceived lack of threat; 5) perceived priority of educational achievement; 6) perceived acceptability; 7) motivation loss; and 8) lack of support. Validity of IDOBA was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. To confirm face validity, ten overweight/obese adolescents completed the questionnaire. To calculate content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI), a different panel of ten experts commented independently on the necessity, relevance, clarity, and simplicity of each item. To assess construct validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), a total of 478 adolescents (57.7% male) aged 13 to 18 years, who were recruited from schools, participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test whether the data fit the hypothesized measurement model that was derived from EFA. Test-retest and internal consistency methods were used to assess reliability of the IDOBA scale.

Background

The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Hence, there is a growing need for health professionals to become capable of assessing the factors that determine lifestyle in a culturally relevant manner.

Conclusions

Results provided initial evidence that the IDOBA is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring determinants of obesity-related behaviors in Iranian adolescents, indicating that the questionnaire can be used in future weight management programs for Tehranian adolescents.

Results

All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by adolescents. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for eight subscales. No ceiling effects were observed. Detected floor effects ranged from 0.2% for perceived acceptability subscale score to 18.8% for lack of threat subscale score. The EFA suggested an eight-factor construct and the results of the CFA indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed model. All subscales demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient, 0.42 - 0.91) over one month.

Objectives

This study aimed to develop and assess a questionnaire for measuring determinants of obesity-related behaviors in Tehranian adolescents.

Patients and Methods

Based on the results of a qualitative study and an extensive literature review, the 44-item “Inventory of determinants of obesity-related behaviors in adolescents (IDOBA)” with eight subscales was developed: 1) unhealthy nutrition and physical inactivity; 2) stress-related eating; 3) perceived inability; 4) perceived lack of threat; 5) perceived priority of educational achievement; 6) perceived acceptability; 7) motivation loss; and 8) lack of support. Validity of IDOBA was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. To confirm face validity, ten overweight/obese adolescents completed the questionnaire. To calculate content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI), a different panel of ten experts commented independently on the necessity, relevance, clarity, and simplicity of each item. To assess construct validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), a total of 478 adolescents (57.7% male) aged 13 to 18 years, who were recruited from schools, participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test whether the data fit the hypothesized measurement model that was derived from EFA. Test-retest and internal consistency methods were used to assess reliability of the IDOBA scale.

Background

The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Hence, there is a growing need for health professionals to become capable of assessing the factors that determine lifestyle in a culturally relevant manner.

Obesity;Adolescent;Validity;Reliability;Iran Obesity;Adolescent;Validity;Reliability;Iran http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24618 Parisa Amiri Parisa Amiri Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fazlollah Ghofranipour Fazlollah Ghofranipour Department of Health Education, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education, Tarbiat Modares University, P. O. Box: 14115-111, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182883869 Department of Health Education, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education, Tarbiat Modares University, P. O. Box: 14115-111, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182883869 Sara Jalali-Farahani Sara Jalali-Farahani Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fazlollah Ahmadi Fazlollah Ahmadi Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Farhad Hosseinpanah Farhad Hosseinpanah Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Haidar Ali Hooman Haidar Ali Hooman Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran Parnian Parvin Parnian Parvin Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Students' Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Students' Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,IR Iran Mohammadreza Ghasemi Mohammadreza Ghasemi Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Students' Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Endocrine Health, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Students' Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,IR Iran
en 26425125 10.5812/ijem.19073v2 The Association of Polymorphisms in Leptin/Leptin Receptor Genes and Ghrelin/Ghrelin Receptor Genes With Overweight/Obesity and the Related Metabolic Disturbances: A Review The Association of Polymorphisms in Leptin/Leptin Receptor Genes and Ghrelin/Ghrelin Receptor Genes With Overweight/Obesity and the Related Metabolic Disturbances: A Review review-article review-article Conclusions

In general, our study suggests that the association between LEP/LEPR and GHRL/GHSR with overweight/obesity and the related metabolic disturbances is inconclusive. These results may be due to unidentified gene-environment interactions. More investigations are needed to further clarify this association.

Results

The most prevalent leptin/leptin receptor genes (LEP/LEPR) and ghrelin/ghrelin receptor genes (GHRL/GHSR) single nucleotide polymorphisms studied were LEP G-2548A, LEPR Q223R, and Leu72Met, respectively. Nine studies of the 17 studies on LEP/LEPR, and three studies of the seven studies on GHRL/GHSR showed significant relationships.

Evidence Acquisition

The keywords leptin, ghrelin, polymorphism, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), obesity, overweight, Body Mass Index, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (MeSH headings) were used to search in the following databases: Pubmed, Sciencedirect (Elsevier), and Google scholar. Overall, 24 case-control studies, relevant to our topic, met the criteria and were included in the review.

Context

Leptin and ghrelin are two important appetite and energy balance-regulating peptides. Common polymorphisms in the genes coding these peptides and their related receptors are shown to be associated with body weight, different markers of obesity and metabolic abnormalities. This review article aims to investigate the association of common polymorphisms of these genes with overweight/obesity and the metabolic disturbances related to it.

Conclusions

In general, our study suggests that the association between LEP/LEPR and GHRL/GHSR with overweight/obesity and the related metabolic disturbances is inconclusive. These results may be due to unidentified gene-environment interactions. More investigations are needed to further clarify this association.

Results

The most prevalent leptin/leptin receptor genes (LEP/LEPR) and ghrelin/ghrelin receptor genes (GHRL/GHSR) single nucleotide polymorphisms studied were LEP G-2548A, LEPR Q223R, and Leu72Met, respectively. Nine studies of the 17 studies on LEP/LEPR, and three studies of the seven studies on GHRL/GHSR showed significant relationships.

Evidence Acquisition

The keywords leptin, ghrelin, polymorphism, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), obesity, overweight, Body Mass Index, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (MeSH headings) were used to search in the following databases: Pubmed, Sciencedirect (Elsevier), and Google scholar. Overall, 24 case-control studies, relevant to our topic, met the criteria and were included in the review.

Context

Leptin and ghrelin are two important appetite and energy balance-regulating peptides. Common polymorphisms in the genes coding these peptides and their related receptors are shown to be associated with body weight, different markers of obesity and metabolic abnormalities. This review article aims to investigate the association of common polymorphisms of these genes with overweight/obesity and the metabolic disturbances related to it.

Leptin;Ghrelin;Single Nucleotide Polymorphism;Obesity;Overweight;Body Mass Index;Metabolic Syndrome;Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2. Leptin;Ghrelin;Single Nucleotide Polymorphism;Obesity;Overweight;Body Mass Index;Metabolic Syndrome;Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2. http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19073 Hamid Ghalandari Hamid Ghalandari Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Parvin Mirmiran Parvin Mirmiran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center,Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122402463, Fax: +98-2122432500 Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center,Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122402463, Fax: +98-2122432500
en 26425126 10.5812/ijem.25201v2 The Association of Dairy Intake With Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study The Association of Dairy Intake With Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study research-article research-article Conclusions

Results of this study did not support the hypothesis that dairy products consumption protects against MetS and its components.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 785 adolescent aged 10 to 19 years, participated from the fourth phase of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a valid semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total dairy, low fat and high fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and cheese were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric, biochemical and blood pressure was performed and MetS was defined according to the de Ferranti criteria.

Results

The mean age of subjects was 14.8 ± 2.9 years. The prevalence of MetS was 22.2% (girls: 19.5% and boys: 25.2%). The most prevalent risk factor for MetS in boys was high waist circumference (53.4%) and among girls was low HDL-C (53.1%). Energy density and intake of protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, calcium and phosphor were higher in the highest quartile of dairy consumption than the lowest quartile. After adjustments for confounders, odds ratios with 95% confidence interval for MetS in the highest quartile of total dairy, low fat dairy, high fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and cheese compared with lowest quartile were respectively 0.97 (0.57 - 1.66), 1.44 (0.83 - 2.49), 0.97 (0.56 - 1.67), 0.70 (0.42 - 1.18), 1.62 (0.99 - 2.64) and 0.72 (0.44 - 1.18).

Objectives

The objective of this study was to examine the association of dairy intake with MetS and its components in Tehranian adolescents.

Background

Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of dairy product plays an important role in prevention and treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS).

Conclusions

Results of this study did not support the hypothesis that dairy products consumption protects against MetS and its components.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 785 adolescent aged 10 to 19 years, participated from the fourth phase of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a valid semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total dairy, low fat and high fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and cheese were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric, biochemical and blood pressure was performed and MetS was defined according to the de Ferranti criteria.

Results

The mean age of subjects was 14.8 ± 2.9 years. The prevalence of MetS was 22.2% (girls: 19.5% and boys: 25.2%). The most prevalent risk factor for MetS in boys was high waist circumference (53.4%) and among girls was low HDL-C (53.1%). Energy density and intake of protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, calcium and phosphor were higher in the highest quartile of dairy consumption than the lowest quartile. After adjustments for confounders, odds ratios with 95% confidence interval for MetS in the highest quartile of total dairy, low fat dairy, high fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and cheese compared with lowest quartile were respectively 0.97 (0.57 - 1.66), 1.44 (0.83 - 2.49), 0.97 (0.56 - 1.67), 0.70 (0.42 - 1.18), 1.62 (0.99 - 2.64) and 0.72 (0.44 - 1.18).

Objectives

The objective of this study was to examine the association of dairy intake with MetS and its components in Tehranian adolescents.

Background

Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of dairy product plays an important role in prevention and treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS).

Dairy Products;Adolescent;Hypertension;Obesity;Dislypidemia Dairy Products;Adolescent;Hypertension;Obesity;Dislypidemia http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25201 Shirin Ghotboddin Mohammadi Shirin Ghotboddin Mohammadi Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Parvin Mirmiran Parvin Mirmiran Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122357484, Fax: +98-2122416264; 22402463 Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122357484, Fax: +98-2122416264; 22402463 Zahra Bahadoran Zahra Bahadoran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Yadollah Mehrabi Yadollah Mehrabi Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fereidoun Azizi Fereidoun Azizi Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 26401141 10.5812/ijem.23085v2 Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy and Obesity in Girls Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy and Obesity in Girls research-article research-article Results

From 110 subjects with CPP, 46 girls (41.8%) were considered as intervention and 64 (58.2%) as control groups. The mean age at initial visit was 7.46 ± 1.03 years. The BMI standard deviation scores in both groups was not significantly different at sixth and 12th months of treatment compared with baseline (P = 0.257 and P = 0.839, respectively). The prevalence of obesity was not significantly different between study groups at baseline and at and sixth and 12th months of therapy (P = 0.11, P = 0.068, and P = 0.052, respectively).

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) therapy on body mass index (BMI) in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP).

Patients and Methods

The girls with onset of puberty before eight years of age or menarche before nine years of age were studied. The weight, height, BMI, and pubertal stage were determined before and at sixth and 12th months of treatment. The GnRHa (Triptorelin) was administered intramuscularly for patients with rapidly progressive forms of CPP. Patients with slowly progressive forms of CPP were considered as control group.

Background

Depot preparations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are the gold standard drugs for the treatment of central precocious puberty. A concern about these drugs is obesity.

Conclusions

The GnRHa therapy has no effect on BMI and the prevalence of obesity.

Results

From 110 subjects with CPP, 46 girls (41.8%) were considered as intervention and 64 (58.2%) as control groups. The mean age at initial visit was 7.46 ± 1.03 years. The BMI standard deviation scores in both groups was not significantly different at sixth and 12th months of treatment compared with baseline (P = 0.257 and P = 0.839, respectively). The prevalence of obesity was not significantly different between study groups at baseline and at and sixth and 12th months of therapy (P = 0.11, P = 0.068, and P = 0.052, respectively).

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) therapy on body mass index (BMI) in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP).

Patients and Methods

The girls with onset of puberty before eight years of age or menarche before nine years of age were studied. The weight, height, BMI, and pubertal stage were determined before and at sixth and 12th months of treatment. The GnRHa (Triptorelin) was administered intramuscularly for patients with rapidly progressive forms of CPP. Patients with slowly progressive forms of CPP were considered as control group.

Background

Depot preparations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are the gold standard drugs for the treatment of central precocious puberty. A concern about these drugs is obesity.

Conclusions

The GnRHa therapy has no effect on BMI and the prevalence of obesity.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist;Triptorelin;Puberty, Precocious;Obesity Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist;Triptorelin;Puberty, Precocious;Obesity http://www.endometabol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23085 Kobra Shiasi Arani Kobra Shiasi Arani Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Disorders, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Disorders, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3155580190, Fax: +98-3155548900 Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Disorders, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Disorders, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3155580190, Fax: +98-3155548900 Fatemeh Heidari Fatemeh Heidari Nekoei-Hedayati Therapeutic Educational Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran Nekoei-Hedayati Therapeutic Educational Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran