International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Published by: Kowsar

Factor Analysis of Metabolic Syndrome Components in an Iranian Non-Diabetic Adult Population: A Population-Based Study from the North of Iran

Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki 1 , *
Author Information
1 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: April 2018, 16 (2); e14159
  • Published Online: April 17, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: June 13, 2017
  • Revised: January 28, 2018
  • Accepted: March 17, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijem.14159

To Cite: Hajian-Tilaki K. Factor Analysis of Metabolic Syndrome Components in an Iranian Non-Diabetic Adult Population: A Population-Based Study from the North of Iran, Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2018 ; 16(2):e14159. doi: 10.5812/ijem.14159.

Copyright © 2018, International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
5. Conclusions
  • 1. Ford ES. The metabolic syndrome and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all-causes: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II Mortality Study. Atherosclerosis. 2004;173(2):309-14. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2003.12.022. [PubMed: 15064107].
  • 2. Reaven GM. Banting Lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. 1988. Nutrition. 1997;13(1):65. discussion 64, 66. [PubMed: 9058458].
  • 3. Reaven G. Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease: the end of the beginning. Circulation. 2005;112:30-2.
  • 4. Kahn R, Buse J, Ferrannini E, Stern M, American Diabetes A, European Association for the Study of D. The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal: joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(9):2289-304. [PubMed: 16123508].
  • 5. Expert Panel on Detection E, Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in A. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001;285(19):2486-97. [PubMed: 11368702].
  • 6. Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J, I. D. F. Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group . The metabolic syndrome--a new worldwide definition. Lancet. 2005;366(9491):1059-62. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67402-8. [PubMed: 16182882].
  • 7. Grundy SM, Brewer HJ, Cleeman JI, Smith SJ, Lenfant C, American Heart A, et al. Definition of metabolic syndrome: Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation. 2004;109(3):433-8. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000111245.75752.C6. [PubMed: 14744958].
  • 8. Shen BJ, Todaro JF, Niaura R, McCaffery JM, Zhang J, Spiro A3, et al. Are metabolic risk factors one unified syndrome? Modeling the structure of the metabolic syndrome X. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(8):701-11. [PubMed: 12697574].
  • 9. Shen BJ, Goldberg RB, Llabre MM, Schneiderman N. Is the factor structure of the metabolic syndrome comparable between men and women and across three ethnic groups: the Miami Community Health Study. Ann Epidemiol. 2006;16(2):131-7. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2005.06.049. [PubMed: 16257230].
  • 10. Hanley AJ, Karter AJ, Festa A, D'Agostino RJ, Wagenknecht LE, Savage P, et al. Factor analysis of metabolic syndrome using directly measured insulin sensitivity: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes. 2002;51(8):2642-7. [PubMed: 12145182].
  • 11. Novak S, Stapleton LM, Litaker JR, Lawson KA. A confirmatory factor analysis evaluation of the coronary heart disease risk factors of metabolic syndrome with emphasis on the insulin resistance factor. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2003;5(6):388-96. [PubMed: 14617224].
  • 12. Shah S, Novak S, Stapleton LM. Evaluation and comparison of models of metabolic syndrome using confirmatory factor analysis. Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21(5):343-9. doi: 10.1007/s10654-006-9004-2. [PubMed: 16736276].
  • 13. Fakhrzadeh H, Ebrahimpour P, Pourebrahim R, Heshmat R, Larijani B. Metabolic Syndrome and its Associated Risk Factors in Healthy Adults: APopulation-Based Study in Iran. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2006;4(1):28-34. doi: 10.1089/met.2006.4.28. [PubMed: 18370767].
  • 14. Esteghamati A, Zandieh A, Khalilzadeh O, Meysamie A, Ashraf H. Clustering of metabolic syndrome components in a Middle Eastern diabetic and non-diabetic population. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2010;2:36. doi: 10.1186/1758-5996-2-36. [PubMed: 20529329].
  • 15. Azizi F, Salehi P, Etemadi A, Zahedi-Asl S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003;61(1):29-37. [PubMed: 12849921].
  • 16. Sarrafzadegan N, Kelishadi R, Baghaei A, Hussein Sadri G, Malekafzali H, Mohammadifard N, et al. Metabolic syndrome: an emerging public health problem in Iranian women: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Int J Cardiol. 2008;131(1):90-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.10.049. [PubMed: 18190978].
  • 17. Hajian-Tilaki K. Metabolic syndrome and its associated risk factors in Iranian adults: A systematic review. Caspian J Intern Med. 2015;6(2):51-61. [PubMed: 26221500].
  • 18. Hajian-Tilaki K, Heidari Firozjahi B. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the associated socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults:. Diabetes Metab Synd Clin Rev. 2014;8:170-6.
  • 19. Hajian-Tilaki KO, Heidari B. Prevalence of obesity, central obesity and the associated factors in urban population aged 20-70 years, in the north of Iran: a population-based study and regression approach. Obes Rev. 2007;8(1):3-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00235.x. [PubMed: 17212790].
  • 20. Hajian-Tilaki K, Heidari B. Is waist circumference a better predictor of diabetes than body mass index or waist-to-height ratio in Iranian adults? Int J Prev Med. 2015;6:5. doi: 10.4103/2008-7802.151434. [PubMed: 25789140].
  • 21. Hajian-Tilaki K, Heidari B, Hajian-Tilaki A, Firouzjahi A, Bagherzadeh M. The discriminatory performance of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio for detection of metabolic syndrome and their optimal cutoffs among Iranian adults. J Res Health Sci. 2014;14(4):276-81. [PubMed: 25503283].
  • 22. Choi KM, Lee J, Kim KB, Kim DR, Kim SK, Shin DH, et al. Factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome among elderly Koreans--the South-west Seoul Study. Diabet Med. 2003;20(2):99-104. [PubMed: 12581260].
  • 23. Karns R, Succop P, Zhang G, Sun G, Indugula SR, Havas‐Augustin D, et al. Modeling metabolic syndrome through structural equations of metabolic traits, comorbid diseases, and GWAS variants. Obesity. 2013;21(12).
  • 24. Sarraf-Zadegan N, Baghaei AM, Sadeghi M, Amin-Zadeh A. Factor analysis of metabolic syndrome among Iranian male smokers. Iran J Med Sci. 2015;30(2).
  • 25. Nasila Sungwacha J, Tyler J, Longo-Mbenza B, Lasi On'Kin JB, Gombet T, Erasmus RT. Assessing clustering of metabolic syndrome components available at primary care for Bantu Africans using factor analysis in the general population. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6:228. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-6-228. [PubMed: 23758878].
  • 26. Ayubi E, Khalili D, Delpisheh A, Hadaegh F, Azizi F. Factor analysis of metabolic syndrome components and predicting type 2 diabetes: Results of 10-year follow-up in a Middle Eastern population. J Diabetes. 2015;7(6):830-8. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12252. [PubMed: 25492310].
  • 27. Oh JY, Hong YS, Sung YA, Barrett-Connor E. Prevalence and factor analysis of metabolic syndrome in an urban Korean population. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(8):2027-32. [PubMed: 15277435].
  • 28. Anderson PJ, Critchley JA, Chan JC, Cockram CS, Lee ZS, Thomas GN, et al. Factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome: obesity vs insulin resistance as the central abnormality. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(12):1782-8. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801837. [PubMed: 11781758].
  • 29. Pladevall M, Singal B, Williams LK, Brotons C, Guyer H, Sadurni J, et al. A single factor underlies the metabolic syndrome: a confirmatory factor analysis. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(1):113-22. [PubMed: 16373906].
  • 30. Huo D, Wang W, Li X, Gao Q, Wu L, Luo Y, et al. Evaluation of two single-factor models of metabolic syndrome: a confirmatory factor analysis for an adult population in Beijing. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:61. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-12-61. [PubMed: 23638905].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments