International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Published by: Kowsar

Thyroid Function in Pregnancy and Its Influences on Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

Forough Saki 1 , Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh 1 , * , Seyede Zahra Ghaemi 2 , Sedighe Forouhari 3 , Gholamhossein Ranjbar Omrani 1 and Marzieh Bakhshayeshkaram 1 , *
Authors Information
1 Shiraz Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
2 Department of Midwifery, Islamic Azad University, Estahban Branch, Estahban, IR Iran
3 Shiraz Infertility Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
Corresponding Authors:
Article information
  • International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: October 01, 2014, 12 (4); e19378
  • Published Online: October 1, 2014
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: April 13, 2014
  • Revised: July 13, 2014
  • Accepted: August 3, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijem.19378

To Cite: Saki F, Dabbaghmanesh M H, Ghaemi S Z, Forouhari S, Ranjbar Omrani G, et al. Thyroid Function in Pregnancy and Its Influences on Maternal and Fetal Outcomes, Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2014 ;12(4):e19378. doi: 10.5812/ijem.19378.

Abstract
Copyright © 2014, Research Institute For Endocrine Sciences and Iran Endocrine Society. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Material and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Mannisto T, Vaarasmaki M, Pouta A, Hartikainen AL, Ruokonen A, Surcel HM, et al. Thyroid dysfunction and autoantibodies during pregnancy as predictive factors of pregnancy complications and maternal morbidity in later life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95(3): 1084-94[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Glinoer D. The regulation of thyroid function in pregnancy: pathways of endocrine adaptation from physiology to pathology. Endocr Rev. 1997; 18(3): 404-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Karakosta P, Alegakis D, Georgiou V, Roumeliotaki T, Fthenou E, Vassilaki M, et al. Thyroid dysfunction and autoantibodies in early pregnancy are associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes and adverse birth outcomes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(12): 4464-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Skjoldebrand L, Brundin J, Carlstrom A, Pettersson T. Thyroid associated components in serum during normal pregnancy. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1982; 100(4): 504-11[PubMed]
  • 5. Su PY, Huang K, Hao JH, Xu YQ, Yan SQ, Li T, et al. Maternal thyroid function in the first twenty weeks of pregnancy and subsequent fetal and infant development: a prospective population-based cohort study in China. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(10): 3234-41[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Stagnaro-Green A. Maternal thyroid disease and preterm delivery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94(1): 21-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Mannisto T, Mendola P, Reddy U, Laughon SK. Neonatal outcomes and birth weight in pregnancies complicated by maternal thyroid disease. Am J Epidemiol. 2013; 178(5): 731-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Sahu MT, Das V, Mittal S, Agarwal A, Sahu M. Overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction among Indian pregnant women and its effect on maternal and fetal outcome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010; 281(2): 215-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Poppe K, Glinoer D. Thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism before and during pregnancy. Hum Reprod Update. 2003; 9(2): 149-61[PubMed]
  • 10. Vanderpump MP, Tunbridge WM. Epidemiology and prevention of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid. 2002; 12(10): 839-47[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Mestman JH, Goodwin TM, Montoro MM. Thyroid disorders of pregnancy. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1995; 24(1): 41-71[PubMed]
  • 12. Leung AS, Millar LK, Koonings PP, Montoro M, Mestman JH. Perinatal outcome in hypothyroid pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 1993; 81(3): 349-53[PubMed]
  • 13. Mestman JH. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1998; 27(1): 127-49[DOI]
  • 14. Millar LK, Wing DA, Leung AS, Koonings PP, Montoro MN, Mestman JH. Low birth weight and preeclampsia in pregnancies complicated by hyperthyroidism. Obstet Gynecol. 1994; 84(6): 946-9[PubMed]
  • 15. Stagnaro-Green A, Abalovich M, Alexander E, Azizi F, Mestman J, Negro R, et al. Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum. Thyroid. 2011; 21(10): 1081-125[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Abalovich M, Amino N, Barbour LA, Cobin RH, De Groot LJ, Glinoer D, et al. Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92(8 Suppl)-47[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Gharib H, Cobin RH, Dickey RA. Subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy: position statement from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Endocr Pract. 1999; 5(6): 367-8
  • 18. Kahric-Janicic N, Soldin SJ, Soldin OP, West T, Gu J, Jonklaas J. Tandem mass spectrometry improves the accuracy of free thyroxine measurements during pregnancy. Thyroid. 2007; 17(4): 303-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Azizi F, Hosseini MS, Amouzegar A, Tohidi M, Ainy E. Neonatal thyroid status in an area of iodine sufficiency. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011; 34(3): 197-200[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Azizi F, Mehran L. Experiences in the prevention, control and elimination of iodine deficiency disorders: a regional perspective. East Mediterr Health J. 2004; 10(6): 761-70[PubMed]
  • 21. Sibai BM. Diagnosis and management of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 102(1): 181-92[PubMed]
  • 22. Gardosi J. New definition of small for gestational age based on fetal growth potential. Horm Res. 2006; 65 Suppl 3: 15-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Kramer MS. Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ. 1987; 65(5): 663-737[PubMed]
  • 24. Goldenberg RL, Culhane JF, Iams JD, Romero R. Epidemiology and causes of preterm birth. Lancet. 2008; 371(9606): 75-84[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Finster M, Wood M. The Apgar score has survived the test of time. Anesthesiology. 2005; 102(4): 855-7[PubMed]
  • 26. Mehran L, Amouzegar A, Delshad H, Askari S, Hedayati M, Amirshekari G, et al. Trimester-specific reference ranges for thyroid hormones in Iranian pregnant women. J Thyroid Res. 2013; 2013: 651517[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Marwaha RK, Chopra S, Gopalakrishnan S, Sharma B, Kanwar RS, Sastry A, et al. Establishment of reference range for thyroid hormones in normal pregnant Indian women. BJOG. 2008; 115(5): 602-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Azizi F, Mehran L, Amouzegar A, Delshad H, Tohidi M, Askari S, et al. Establishment of the trimester-specific reference range for free thyroxine index. Thyroid. 2013; 23(3): 354-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Haddow JE, Knight GJ, Palomaki GE, McClain MR, Pulkkinen AJ. The reference range and within-person variability of thyroid stimulating hormone during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. J Med Screen. 2004; 11(4): 170-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Stricker R, Echenard M, Eberhart R, Chevailler MC, Perez V, Quinn FA, et al. Evaluation of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy: the importance of using gestational age-specific reference intervals. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007; 157(4): 509-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Panesar NS, Li CY, Rogers MS. Reference intervals for thyroid hormones in pregnant Chinese women. Ann Clin Biochem. 2001; 38: 329-32[PubMed]
  • 32. Soldin OP, Soldin D, Sastoque M. Gestation-specific thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in the United States and worldwide. Ther Drug Monit. 2007; 29(5): 553-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Korevaar TI, Medici M, de Rijke YB, Visser W, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM, Jaddoe VW, et al. Ethnic differences in maternal thyroid parameters during pregnancy: the Generation R study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(9): 3678-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Fazio S, Palmieri EA, Lombardi G, Biondi B. Effects of thyroid hormone on the cardiovascular system. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2004; 59: 31-50[PubMed]
  • 35. Walsh JP, Bremner AP, Bulsara MK, O'Leary P, Leedman PJ, Feddema P, et al. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and blood pressure: a community-based study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006; 65(4): 486-91[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Ellish NJ, Saboda K, O'Connor J, Nasca PC, Stanek EJ, Boyle C. A prospective study of early pregnancy loss. Hum Reprod. 1996; 11(2): 406-12[PubMed]
  • 37. Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, O'Connor JF, Baird DD, Schlatterer JP, Canfield RE, et al. Incidence of early loss of pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 1988; 319(4): 189-94[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Abalovich M, Gutierrez S, Alcaraz G, Maccallini G, Garcia A, Levalle O. Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism complicating pregnancy. Thyroid. 2002; 12(1): 63-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Allan WC, Haddow JE, Palomaki GE, Williams JR, Mitchell ML, Hermos RJ, et al. Maternal thyroid deficiency and pregnancy complications: implications for population screening. J Med Screen. 2000; 7(3): 127-30[PubMed]
  • 40. Kilby MD, Verhaeg J, Gittoes N, Somerset DA, Clark PM, Franklyn JA. Circulating thyroid hormone concentrations and placental thyroid hormone receptor expression in normal human pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83(8): 2964-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Stagnaro-Green A, Chen X, Bogden JD, Davies TF, Scholl TO. The thyroid and pregnancy: a novel risk factor for very preterm delivery. Thyroid. 2005; 15(4): 351-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Casey BM, Dashe JS, Wells CE, McIntire DD, Byrd W, Leveno KJ, et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism and pregnancy outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 105(2): 239-45[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Rivkees SA, Bode HH, Crawford JD. Long-term growth in juvenile acquired hypothyroidism: the failure to achieve normal adult stature. N Engl J Med. 1988; 318(10): 599-602[DOI][PubMed]
  • 44. Goel P, Radotra A, Devi K, Malhotra S, Aggarwal A, Huria A. Maternal and perinatal outcome in pregnancy with hypothyroidism. Indian J Med Sci. 2005; 59(3): 116-7[PubMed]
  • 45. Mannisto T, Vaarasmaki M, Pouta A, Hartikainen AL, Ruokonen A, Surcel HM, et al. Perinatal outcome of children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction or antibodies: a prospective population-based cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94(3): 772-9[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments