International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Published by: Kowsar

Waist Circumference to Height Ratio: Better Correlation with Fat Mass Than Other Anthropometric Indices During Dietary Weight Loss in Different Rates

Damoon Ashtary-Larky 1 , 2 , Sevana Daneghian 3 , Meysam Alipour 1 , 3 , 4 , Hossein Rafiei 5 , Matin Ghanavati 1 , Reza Mohammadpour 6 , Wesam Kooti 7 , Pouya Ashtary-Larky 1 and Reza Afrisham 8 , *
Authors Information
1 Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Department of Nutrition, School of Paramedicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Exercise Metabolism and Inflammation Laboratory, School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC, Canada
6 Department of Physical Education and sport science, Shushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shushtar, Iran
7 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran
8 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: October 2018, 16 (4); e55023
  • Published Online: August 28, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: June 15, 2017
  • Revised: June 6, 2018
  • Accepted: August 15, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijem.55023

To Cite: Ashtary-Larky D, Daneghian S, Alipour M, Rafiei H, Ghanavati M , et al. Waist Circumference to Height Ratio: Better Correlation with Fat Mass Than Other Anthropometric Indices During Dietary Weight Loss in Different Rates, Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2018 ; 16(4):e55023. doi: 10.5812/ijem.55023.

Copyright © 2018, International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Bakhshi E, Koohpayehzadeh J, Seifi B, Rafei A, Biglarian A, Asgari F, et al. Obesity and related factors in Iran: The STEPS survey, 2011. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015;17(6). e22479. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.17(6)2015.22479. [PubMed: 26328062]. [PubMed Central: PMC4552963].
  • 2. Millstein RA. Measuring outcomes in adult weight loss studies that include diet and physical activity: a systematic review. J Nutr Metab. 2014;2014:421423. doi: 10.1155/2014/421423. [PubMed: 25525513]. [PubMed Central: PMC4262752].
  • 3. Roberts KC, Shields M, de Groh M, Aziz A, Gilbert JA. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: results from the 2009 to 2011 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Rep. 2012;23(3):37-41. [PubMed: 23061263].
  • 4. Sole D. Obesity and asthma. Rev Paul Pediatr. 2013;31(2):136-7. [PubMed: 23828047].
  • 5. Benito-Leon J, Mitchell AJ, Hernandez-Gallego J, Bermejo-Pareja F. Obesity and impaired cognitive functioning in the elderly: a population-based cross-sectional study (NEDICES). Eur J Neurol. 2013;20(6):899-906. e76-7. doi: 10.1111/ene.12083. [PubMed: 23323838].
  • 6. Ghanavati M, Behrooz M, Rashidkhani B, Ashtray-Larky D, Zameni SD, Alipour M. Healthy eating index in patients with cataract: a case-control study. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015;17(10). e22490. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.22490. [PubMed: 26568860]. [PubMed Central: PMC4640062].
  • 7. Senechal M, Arguin H, Bouchard DR, Carpentier AC, Ardilouze JL, Dionne IJ, et al. Effects of rapid or slow weight loss on body composition and metabolic risk factors in obese postmenopausal women. A pilot study. Appetite. 2012;58(3):831-4. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.01.014. [PubMed: 22306435].
  • 8. Chevallier JM. [From bariatric to metabolic surgery: 15 years experience in a French university hospital]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2010;194(1):25-36. discussion 36-8. French. [PubMed: 20669557].
  • 9. Ahmed S, Blumberg J. Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010. Nutr Rev. 2009;67:615-23.
  • 10. Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Bird AR. Comparative effects of very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight-loss diets on bowel habit and faecal short-chain fatty acids and bacterial populations. Br J Nutr. 2009;101(10):1493-502. doi: 10.1017/S0007114508094658. [PubMed: 19224658].
  • 11. Floegel A, Pischon T. Low carbohydrate-high protein diets. BMJ. 2012;344. e3801. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e3801. [PubMed: 22718914].
  • 12. Deurenberg P, Deurenberg-Yap M, Guricci S. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship. Obes Rev. 2002;3(3):141-6. [PubMed: 12164465].
  • 13. Deurenberg-Yap M, Schmidt G, van Staveren WA, Deurenberg P. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24(8):1011-7. [PubMed: 10951540].
  • 14. Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(3):379-84. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/79.3.379. [PubMed: 14985210].
  • 15. Krakauer NY, Krakauer JC. A new body shape index predicts mortality hazard independently of body mass index. PLoS One. 2012;7(7). e39504. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039504. [PubMed: 22815707]. [PubMed Central: PMC3399847].
  • 16. Bergman RN, Stefanovski D, Buchanan TA, Sumner AE, Reynolds JC, Sebring NG, et al. A better index of body adiposity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(5):1083-9. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.38. [PubMed: 21372804]. [PubMed Central: PMC3275633].
  • 17. World Health Organization. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation Geneva, 8 - 11 December 2008. Geneva; 2011.
  • 18. Ashwell M, Hsieh SD. Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005;56(5):303-7. doi: 10.1080/09637480500195066. [PubMed: 16236591].
  • 19. Higgins M, Kannel W, Garrison R, Pinsky J, Stokes J. Hazards of obesity the Framingham experience. Acta Med Scand. 1987;222(1):23-6. [PubMed: 3164971].
  • 20. Freedman DS, Kahn HS, Mei Z, Grummer-Strawn LM, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, et al. Relation of body mass index and waist-to-height ratio to cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(1):33-40. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/86.1.33. [PubMed: 17616760].
  • 21. Ashwell M, Gunn P, Gibson S. Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2012;13(3):275-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00952.x. [PubMed: 22106927].
  • 22. Deurenberg P, Yap M, van Staveren WA. Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(12):1164-71. [PubMed: 9877251].
  • 23. Ashtary-Larky D, Ghanavati M, Lamuchi-Deli N, Payami SA, Alavi-Rad S, Boustaninejad M, et al. Rapid weight loss vs. slow weight loss: which is more effective on body composition and metabolic risk factors? Int J Endocrinol Metabolism. 2017;In Press(In Press). doi: 10.5812/ijem.13249.
  • 24. Ghafourian M, Ashtary-Larky D, Chinipardaz R, Eskandary N, Mehavaran M. Inflammatory biomarkers' response to two different intensities of a single bout exercise among soccer players. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016;18(2). e21498. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.21498. [PubMed: 27175304]. [PubMed Central: PMC4862257].
  • 25. World Health Organization. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO expert committee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1995;854:1-452. [PubMed: 8594834].
  • 26. Mosteller RD. Simplified calculation of body-surface area. N Engl J Med. 1987;317(17):1098. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198710223171717. [PubMed: 3657876].
  • 27. Schutz Y, Kyle UU, Pichard C. Fat-free mass index and fat mass index percentiles in Caucasians aged 18-98 y. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26(7):953-60. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802037. [PubMed: 12080449].
  • 28. Stiegler P, Cunliffe A. The role of diet and exercise for the maintenance of fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate during weight loss. Sports Med. 2006;36(3):239-62. [PubMed: 16526835].
  • 29. Weinsier RL, Nagy TR, Hunter GR, Darnell BE, Hensrud DD, Weiss HL. Do adaptive changes in metabolic rate favor weight regain in weight-reduced individuals? An examination of the set-point theory. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(5):1088-94. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/72.5.1088. [PubMed: 11063433].
  • 30. Biolo G, Ciocchi B, Stulle M, Bosutti A, Barazzoni R, Zanetti M, et al. Calorie restriction accelerates the catabolism of lean body mass during 2 wk of bed rest. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(2):366-72. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/86.2.366. [PubMed: 17684207].
  • 31. Chaston TB, Dixon JB. Factors associated with percent change in visceral versus subcutaneous abdominal fat during weight loss: findings from a systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(4):619-28. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803761. [PubMed: 18180786].
  • 32. Gasteyger C, Tremblay A. Metabolic impact of body fat distribution. J Endocrinol Invest. 2002;25(10):876-83. doi: 10.1007/BF03344051. [PubMed: 12508950].
  • 33. Tumova E, Sun W, Jones PH, Vrablik M, Ballantyne CM, Hoogeveen RC. The impact of rapid weight loss on oxidative stress markers and the expression of the metabolic syndrome in obese individuals. J Obes. 2013;2013:729515. doi: 10.1155/2013/729515. [PubMed: 24455214]. [PubMed Central: PMC3880717].
  • 34. Williams MJ, Hunter GR, Kekes-Szabo T, Snyder S, Treuth MS. Regional fat distribution in women and risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(3):855-60. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/65.3.855. [PubMed: 9062540].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments