International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Published by: Kowsar

Thrombosis in Thyroid Cancer

Arash Ordookhani 1 , Abbas Motazedi 1 and Kenneth D. Burman 2 , *
Authors Information
1 MD, Endocrine Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Providence Hospital, Washington, DC, 20017
2 MD, Endocrine Section, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, 20010
Article information
  • International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: January 2018, 16 (1); e57897
  • Published Online: October 31, 2017
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: April 5, 2017
  • Revised: July 26, 2017
  • Accepted: August 23, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijem.57897

To Cite: Ordookhani A, Motazedi A, Burman K D. Thrombosis in Thyroid Cancer, Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2018 ; 16(1):e57897. doi: 10.5812/ijem.57897.

Copyright © 2017, International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Introduction
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Khorana AA, Connolly GC. Assessing risk of venous thromboembolism in the patient with cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(29):4839-47. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.22.3271. [PubMed: 19720906].
  • 2. Levitan N, Dowlati A, Remick SC, Tahsildar HI, Sivinski LD, Beyth R, et al. Rates of initial and recurrent thromboembolic disease among patients with malignancy versus those without malignancy. Risk analysis using Medicare claims data. Medicine (Baltimore). 1999;78(5):285-91. [PubMed: 10499070].
  • 3. Thodiyil PA, Kakkar AK. Variation in relative risk of venous thromboembolism in different cancers. Thromb Haemost. 2002;87(6):1076-7. [PubMed: 12083490].
  • 4. Heit JA. Cancer and venous thromboembolism: scope of the problem. Cancer Control. 2005;12 Suppl 1:5-10. [PubMed: 16179898].
  • 5. Horsted F, West J, Grainge MJ. Risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2012;9(7). e1001275. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001275. [PubMed: 22859911].
  • 6. Cronin-Fenton DP, Sondergaard F, Pedersen LA, Fryzek JP, Cetin K, Acquavella J, et al. Hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism in cancer patients and the general population: a population-based cohort study in Denmark, 1997-2006. Br J Cancer. 2010;103(7):947-53. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605883. [PubMed: 20842120].
  • 7. Blom JW, Doggen CJ, Osanto S, Rosendaal FR. Malignancies, prothrombotic mutations, and the risk of venous thrombosis. JAMA. 2005;293(6):715-22. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.6.715. [PubMed: 15701913].
  • 8. Gomes MN, Hufnagel CA. Superior vena cava obstruction: a review of the literature and report of 2 cases due to benign intrathoracic tumors. Ann Thorac Surg. 1975;20(3):344-59. [PubMed: 1164079].
  • 9. Hyer SL, Dandekar P, Newbold K, Haq M, Wechalakar K, Thway K, et al. Thyroid cancer causing obstruction of the great veins in the neck. World J Surg Oncol. 2008;6:36. doi: 10.1186/1477-7819-6-36. [PubMed: 18387194].
  • 10. Bhargav PR. Tumor thromboembolization into the internal jugular vein through its draining vein: a preoperative radiologic feature of high-risk thyroid cancer. Surgery. 2014;155(1):196-7. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2012.08.006. [PubMed: 23059115].
  • 11. Mishra A, Agarwal A, Agarwal G, Mishra SK. Internal jugular vein invasion by thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Surg. 2001;167(1):64-7. doi: 10.1080/110241501750069855. [PubMed: 11213825].
  • 12. Motohashi S, Sekine Y, Iizasa T, Nakano K, Numata T, Fujisawa T. Thyroid cancer with massive invasion into the neck and mediastinal great veins. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;53(1):55-7. doi: 10.1007/s11748-005-1012-8. [PubMed: 15724506].
  • 13. Franco IF, Gurrado A, Lissidini G, Di Meo G, Pasculli A, Testini M. Floating left innominate vein neoplastic thrombus: a rare case of mediastinal extension of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Phlebology. 2015;30(2):140-4. doi: 10.1177/0268355513515209. [PubMed: 24335091].
  • 14. Boelaert K. Thyroid gland: Revised guidelines for the management of thyroid cancer. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010;6(4):185-6. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2010.17. [PubMed: 20336160].
  • 15. American Thyroid Association Guidelines Taskforce on Thyroid N, Differentiated Thyroid C, Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, et al. Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2009;19(11):1167-214. doi: 10.1089/thy.2009.0110. [PubMed: 19860577].
  • 16. Burman KD, Wartofsky L. CLINICAL PRACTICE. Thyroid Nodules. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(24):2347-56. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1415786. [PubMed: 26650154].
  • 17. Reinke CE, Hadler RA, Karakousis GC, Fraker DL, Kelz RR. Does the presence of thyroid cancer increase the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing thyroidectomy?. Surgery. 2011;150(6):1275-85. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2011.09.040. [PubMed: 22136851].
  • 18. Roy M, Rajamanickam V, Chen H, Sippel R. Is DVT prophylaxis necessary for thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy?. Surgery. 2010;148(6):1163-8. discussion 1168-9. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2010.09.013. [PubMed: 21134547].
  • 19. Walker AJ, Card TR, West J, Crooks C, Grainge MJ. Incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer - a cohort study using linked United Kingdom databases. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49(6):1404-13. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.10.021. [PubMed: 23146958].
  • 20. Favaloro EJ, Franchini M, Lippi G. Aging hemostasis: changes to laboratory markers of hemostasis as we age - a narrative review. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2014;40(6):621-33. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1384631. [PubMed: 25099191].
  • 21. Van Zaane B, Squizzato A, Debeij J, Dekkers OM, Meijers JC, Van Zanten AP, et al. Alterations in coagulation and fibrinolysis after levothyroxine exposure in healthy volunteers: a controlled randomized crossover study. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9(9):1816-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04430.x. [PubMed: 21729238].
  • 22. Horne M3, Singh KK, Rosenfeld KG, Wesley R, Skarulis MC, Merryman PK, et al. Is thyroid hormone suppression therapy prothrombotic?. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(9):4469-73. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-0536. [PubMed: 15356049].
  • 23. Stuijver DJ, van Zaane B, Squizzato A, Meijers JC, Otten HM. The effects of an extremely high dose of levothyroxine on coagulation and fibrinolysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8(6):1427-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2010.03854.x. [PubMed: 20345725].
  • 24. Liu J, Singh B, Tallini G, Carlson DL, Katabi N, Shaha A, et al. Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of a problematic entity. Cancer. 2006;107(6):1255-64. doi: 10.1002/cncr.22138. [PubMed: 16900519].
  • 25. Jung CK, Little MP, Lubin JH, Brenner AV, Wells SJ, Sigurdson AJ, et al. The increase in thyroid cancer incidence during the last four decades is accompanied by a high frequency of BRAF mutations and a sharp increase in RAS mutations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(2):E276-85. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2503. [PubMed: 24248188].
  • 26. Nikiforov YE, Seethala RR, Tallini G, Baloch ZW, Basolo F, Thompson LD, et al. Nomenclature Revision for Encapsulated Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Paradigm Shift to Reduce Overtreatment of Indolent Tumors. JAMA Oncol. 2016;2(8):1023-9. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.0386. [PubMed: 27078145].
  • 27. National Cancer Institute. Cancer Stat Fact Sheets, National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program. Maryland: National Institute of Health; 2015. Available from:
  • 28. Lal G, Brennan TV, Hambleton J, Clark OH. Coagulopathy, marantic endocarditis, and cerebrovascular accidents as paraneoplastic features in medullary thyroid cancer--case report and review of the literature. Thyroid. 2003;13(6):601-5. doi: 10.1089/105072503322238872. [PubMed: 12930605].
  • 29. Pishdad GR. Ventricular thrombosis in Sipple's syndrome. South Med J. 2000;93(11):1093-5. [PubMed: 11095560].
  • 30. de Groot JW, Kema IP, Breukelman H, van der Veer E, Wiggers T, Plukker JT, et al. Biochemical markers in the follow-up of medullary thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2006;16(11):1163-70. doi: 10.1089/thy.2006.16.1163. [PubMed: 17123344].
  • 31. Lopez-Vilchez I, Diaz-Ricart M, White JG, Escolar G, Galan AM. Serotonin enhances platelet procoagulant properties and their activation induced during platelet tissue factor uptake. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84(2):309-16. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvp205. [PubMed: 19541671].
  • 32. Mercado CP, Quintero MV, Li Y, Singh P, Byrd AK, Talabnin K, et al. A serotonin-induced N-glycan switch regulates platelet aggregation. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2795. doi: 10.1038/srep02795. [PubMed: 24077408].
  • 33. Tiede DJ, Tefferi A, Kochhar R, Thompson GB, Hay ID. Paraneoplastic cholestasis and hypercoagulability associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Resolution with tumor debulking. Cancer. 1994;73(3):702-5. [PubMed: 8299093].
  • 34. Raveh E, Cohen M, Shpitzer T, Feinmesser R. Carcinoma of the thyroid: a cause of hypercoagulability?. Ear Nose Throat J. 1995;74(2):110-2. [PubMed: 7705228].
  • 35. Luo H, Tulpule S, Alam M, Patel R, Sen S, Yousif A. A Rare Silent Killer: Right Atrial Metastasis of Thyroid Hurthle Cell Carcinoma. Case Rep Oncol. 2015;8(2):233-7. doi: 10.1159/000430948. [PubMed: 26078743].
  • 36. Stickel JS, Mayer F, Vollmer JP, Zurn CS, Gawaz M, Kanz L, et al. Ventricular thrombus and thrombocytopenia as first presentation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(12):e194-6. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.43.4894. [PubMed: 23478056].
  • 37. Falanga A, Schieppati F, Russo D. Cancer Tissue Procoagulant Mechanisms and the Hypercoagulable State of Patients with Cancer. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2015;41(7):756-64. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1564040. [PubMed: 26408922].
  • 38. Mitrugno A, Tormoen GW, Kuhn P, McCarty OJ. The prothrombotic activity of cancer cells in the circulation. Blood Rev. 2016;30(1):11-9. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2015.07.001. [PubMed: 26219246].
  • 39. Rickles FR, Edwards RL. Activation of blood coagulation in cancer: Trousseau's syndrome revisited. Blood. 1983;62(1):14-31. [PubMed: 6407544].
  • 40. Mina A, Favaloro EJ, Koutts J. Hemostatic dysfunction associated with endocrine disorders as a major risk factor and cause of human morbidity and mortality: a comprehensive meta-review. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2007;33(8):798-809. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1000372. [PubMed: 18175285].
  • 41. Baldane S, Ipekci SH, Sozen M, Kebapcilar L. Mean platelet volume could be a possible biomarker for papillary thyroid carcinomas. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(7):2671-4. [PubMed: 25854344].
  • 42. Nielsen VG, Garol BD, Zelman EA, Guerrero MA. Hemeoxygenase-1 mediated hypercoagulability in a patient with thyroid cancer. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2013;24(6):663-5. doi: 10.1097/MBC.0b013e328363ab86. [PubMed: 23817544].
  • 43. Osterud B, Due JJ. Blood coagulation in patients with benign and malignant tumours before and after surgery. Special reference to thromboplastin generation in monocytes. Scand J Haematol. 1984;32(3):258-64. [PubMed: 6199833].
  • 44. Sarode R, Marwaha N, Gupta NM. Procoagulant activity of human tumours: existence of Xa and thrombin-like activities. Br J Cancer. 1990;61(1):29-31. [PubMed: 2153394].
  • 45. Horvatic Herceg G, Herceg D, Kralik M, Kulic A, Bence-Zigman Z, Tomic-Brzac H, et al. Urokinase plasminogen activator and its inhibitor type-1 as prognostic factors in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;149(4):533-40. doi: 10.1177/0194599813496374. [PubMed: 23835563].
  • 46. Horvatic Herceg G, Herceg D, Kralik M, Bence-Zigman Z, Tomic-Brzac H, Kulic A. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its inhibitor in thyroid neoplasms: a cytosol study. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2006;118(19-20):601-9. doi: 10.1007/s00508-006-0703-1. [PubMed: 17136335].
  • 47. Baldini E, Sorrenti S, D'Armiento E, Di Matteo FM, Catania A, Ulisse S. The urokinase plasminogen activating system in thyroid cancer: clinical implications. G Chir. 2012;33(10):305-10. [PubMed: 23095556].
  • 48. Sid B, Langlois B, Sartelet H, Bellon G, Dedieu S, Martiny L. Thrombospondin-1 enhances human thyroid carcinoma cell invasion through urokinase activity. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40(9):1890-900. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2008.01.023. [PubMed: 18321763].
  • 49. Ulisse S, Baldini E, Toller M, Marchioni E, Giacomelli L, De Antoni E, et al. Differential expression of the components of the plasminogen activating system in human thyroid tumour derived cell lines and papillary carcinomas. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(15):2631-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2006.04.017. [PubMed: 16928445].
  • 50. Banerjee AK, Chopra JS. Cerebral embolism from a thyroid carcinoma. Report of a case. Arch Neurol. 1972;27(2):186-7. [PubMed: 5040636].
  • 51. Onoda N, Nakamura M, Hosono M, Sasaki Y, Kawajiri H, Takashima T, et al. Successful surgical treatment of advanced follicular thyroid carcinoma with tumor thrombus infiltrating the superior vena cava: report of a case. Surg Today. 2012;42(2):185-90. doi: 10.1007/s00595-011-0033-4. [PubMed: 22072150].
  • 52. Mugunthan N, Kumar AR, Thomas P. Tumor thrombus in the great veins from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: 131I scan findings. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(6):2527-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-2031. [PubMed: 20525903].
  • 53. Wiseman O, Preston PG, Clarke JM. Presentation of thyroid carcinoma as a thrombosed external jugular vein, with intraluminal tumour thrombus in the great veins. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2000;26(8):816-7. doi: 10.1053/ejso.2000.1011. [PubMed: 11087652].
  • 54. Ingle SA, Karnik ND, Pradhan NN, Ranadive NU, Dhurde A, Kotalwar M. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid presenting as posterior mediastinal mass with superior vena cava syndrome. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004;52:1004-5. [PubMed: 15884466].
  • 55. Kobayashi K , Hirokawa M , Yabuta T , Fukushima M , Kihara M , Higashiyama T , et al. Tumor thrombus of thyroid malignancies in veins: importance of detection by ultrasonography. Thyroid. 2011;21(5):527-31.
  • 56. Filetti S, Tuttle RM, Sherman S. Werner and Ingbar's The Thyroid. A fundamental and clinical text. In: Braverman LE, Cooper DS, editors. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluver Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013. Medical Management of differentiated epithelial cell thyroid cancer; p. 725-74.
  • 57. Sherman SI. Thyroid carcinoma. Lancet. 2003;361(9356):501-11. [PubMed: 12583960].
  • 58. Khorana AA, Kuderer NM, Culakova E, Lyman GH, Francis CW. Development and validation of a predictive model for chemotherapy-associated thrombosis. Blood. 2008;111(10):4902-7. doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-10-116327. [PubMed: 18216292].
  • 59. Khorana AA, Francis CW, Culakova E, Lyman GH. Risk factors for chemotherapy-associated venous thromboembolism in a prospective observational study. Cancer. 2005;104(12):2822-9. doi: 10.1002/cncr.21496. [PubMed: 16284987].
  • 60. Haddad TC, Greeno EW. Chemotherapy-induced thrombosis. Thromb Res. 2006;118(5):555-68. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2005.10.015. [PubMed: 16388837].
  • 61. Viola D, Valerio L, Molinaro E, Agate L, Bottici V, Biagini A, et al. Treatment of advanced thyroid cancer with targeted therapies: ten years of experience. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016;23(4):R185-205. doi: 10.1530/ERC-15-0555. [PubMed: 27207700].
  • 62. National cancer institute. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer. 2016. Available from:
  • 63. Wells SJ, Robinson BG, Gagel RF, Dralle H, Fagin JA, Santoro M, et al. Vandetanib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a randomized, double-blind phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(2):134-41. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2011.35.5040. [PubMed: 22025146].
  • 64. Elisei R, Schlumberger MJ, Muller SP, Schoffski P, Brose MS, Shah MH, et al. Cabozantinib in progressive medullary thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(29):3639-46. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.48.4659. [PubMed: 24002501].
  • 65. Dy GK, Adjei AA. Understanding, recognizing, and managing toxicities of targeted anticancer therapies. CA Cancer J Clin. 2013;63(4):249-79. doi: 10.3322/caac.21184. [PubMed: 23716430].
  • 66. Shah DR, Shah RR, Morganroth J. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: their on-target toxicities as potential indicators of efficacy. Drug Saf. 2013;36(6):413-26. doi: 10.1007/s40264-013-0050-x. [PubMed: 23620170].
  • 67. Schutz FA, Je Y, Richards CJ, Choueiri TK. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials for the incidence and risk of treatment-related mortality in patients with cancer treated with vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(8):871-7. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2011.37.1195. [PubMed: 22312105].
  • 68. Pitoia F, Jerkovich F. Selective use of sorafenib in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2016;10:1119-31. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S82972. [PubMed: 27042004].
  • 69. Brassard M, Neraud B, Trabado S, Salenave S, Brailly-Tabard S, Borget I, et al. Endocrine effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib in patients treated for thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(9):2741-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-2771. [PubMed: 21715537].
  • 70. Hoy SM. Cabozantinib: a review of its use in patients with medullary thyroid cancer. Drugs. 2014;74(12):1435-44. doi: 10.1007/s40265-014-0265-x. [PubMed: 25056653].
  • 71. Sherman SI, Wirth LJ, Droz JP, Hofmann M, Bastholt L, Martins RG, et al. Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(1):31-42. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa075853. [PubMed: 18596272].
  • 72. Schlumberger M, Tahara M, Wirth LJ, Robinson B, Brose MS, Elisei R, et al. Lenvatinib versus placebo in radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(7):621-30. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1406470. [PubMed: 25671254].
  • 73. Clinical Trials.Gov. A Service of the U.S. National Institute of Health. Efficacy of XL184 (Cabozantinib) in Advanced Medullary Thyroid Cancer (EXAM. 2016. Available from:
  • 74. NIH. National Library of Medicine. Medline Plus. Cabozantinib. 2016. Available from:
  • 75. Segler A, Tsimberidou AM. Lenalidomide in solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;69(6):1393-406. doi: 10.1007/s00280-012-1874-2. [PubMed: 22584909].
  • 76. Wagle N, Grabiner BC, Van Allen EM, Amin-Mansour A, Taylor-Weiner A, Rosenberg M, et al. Response and acquired resistance to everolimus in anaplastic thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(15):1426-33. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1403352. [PubMed: 25295501].
  • 77. Fury MG, Sherman E, Haque S, Korte S, Lisa D, Shen R, et al. A phase I study of daily everolimus plus low-dose weekly cisplatin for patients with advanced solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;69(3):591-8. doi: 10.1007/s00280-011-1734-5. [PubMed: 21913034].
  • 78. van den Brom RR, Makelburg AB, Schroder CP, de Vries EG, Hospers GA. Vemurafenib-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Metastatic Melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(36):e133-4. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2013.51.4471. [PubMed: 24778390].
  • 79. Woyach JA, Kloos RT, Ringel MD, Arbogast D, Collamore M, Zwiebel JA, et al. Lack of therapeutic effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in patients with metastatic radioiodine-refractory thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(1):164-70. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-1631. [PubMed: 18854394].
  • 80. Kahn SR, Lim W, Dunn AS, Cushman M, Dentali F, Akl EA, et al. Prevention of VTE in nonsurgical patients: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012;141(2 Suppl):e195S-226S. doi: 10.1378/chest.11-2296. [PubMed: 22315261].
  • 81. Streiff MB, Bockenstedt PL, Cataland SR, Chesney C, Eby C, Fanikos J, et al. Venous thromboembolic disease. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2011;9(7):714-77. [PubMed: 21715723].
  • 82. NICE. Venous thromboembolism: reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) in patients admitted to hospital. 2015. Available from:
  • 83. Khorana AA, Carrier M, Garcia DA, Lee AY. Guidance for the prevention and treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016;41(1):81-91. doi: 10.1007/s11239-015-1313-4. [PubMed: 26780740].
  • 84. Lyman GH, Khorana AA, Kuderer NM, Lee AY, Arcelus JI, Balaban EP, et al. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment in patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(17):2189-204. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2013.49.1118. [PubMed: 23669224].
  • 85. Lyman GH, Bohlke K, Khorana AA, Kuderer NM, Lee AY, Arcelus JI, et al. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment in patients with cancer: american society of clinical oncology clinical practice guideline update 2014. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(6):654-6. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.59.7351. [PubMed: 25605844].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments