International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Published by: Kowsar

The Effects of Chemical Castration with Degarelix on Bone Turnover: Densitometric and Biomechanics Bone Properties of Male Rats

Putri Ayu Jayusman 1 , Isa Naina Mohamed 1 and Ahmad Nazrun Shuid 1 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Article information
  • International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: July 2018, 16 (3); e64038
  • Published Online: July 2, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: November 14, 2017
  • Revised: April 16, 2018
  • Accepted: April 25, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijem.64038

To Cite: Jayusman P A, Mohamed I N, Shuid A N. The Effects of Chemical Castration with Degarelix on Bone Turnover: Densitometric and Biomechanics Bone Properties of Male Rats, Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2018 ; 16(3):e64038. doi: 10.5812/ijem.64038.

Copyright © 2018, International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Riggs BL, Khosla S, Melton LJ 3rd. Sex steroids and the construction and conservation of the adult skeleton. Endocr Rev. 2002;23(3):279-302. doi: 10.1210/edrv.23.3.0465. [PubMed: 12050121].
  • 2. Clarke BL, Khosla S. Androgens and bone. Steroids. 2009;74(3):296-305. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2008.10.003. [PubMed: 18992761]. [PubMed Central: PMC2679948].
  • 3. Riggs BL, Khosla S, Melton LJ 3rd. A unitary model for involutional osteoporosis: estrogen deficiency causes both type I and type II osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and contributes to bone loss in aging men. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13(5):763-73. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.1998.13.5.763. [PubMed: 9610739].
  • 4. Manolagas SC, Kousteni S, Jilka RL. Sex steroids and bone. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2002;57:385-409. doi: 10.1210/rp.57.1.385. [PubMed: 12017554].
  • 5. Vanderschueren D, Laurent MR, Claessens F, Gielen E, Lagerquist MK, Vandenput L, et al. Sex steroid actions in male bone. Endocr Rev. 2014;35(6):906-60. doi: 10.1210/er.2014-1024. [PubMed: 25202834]. [PubMed Central: PMC4234776].
  • 6. Bhasin S, Calof OM, Storer TW, Lee ML, Mazer NA, Jasuja R, et al. Drug insight: Testosterone and selective androgen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2006;2(3):146-59. doi: 10.1038/ncpendmet0120. [PubMed: 16932274]. [PubMed Central: PMC2072878].
  • 7. Vanderschueren D, Vandenput L, Boonen S, Lindberg MK, Bouillon R, Ohlsson C. Androgens and bone. Endocr Rev. 2004;25(3):389-425. doi: 10.1210/er.2003-0003. [PubMed: 15180950].
  • 8. Libouban H, Moreau MF, Legrand E, Basle MF, Audran M, Chappard D. Comparison insight dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), histomorphometry, ash weight, and morphometric indices for bone evaluation in an animal model (the orchidectomized rat) of male osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int. 2001;68(1):31-7. doi: 10.1007/s002230001189. [PubMed: 12037621].
  • 9. Lerouxel E, Libouban H, Moreau MF, Basle MF, Audran M, Chappard D. Mandibular bone loss in an animal model of male osteoporosis (orchidectomized rat): a radiographic and densitometric study. Osteoporos Int. 2004;15(10):814-9. doi: 10.1007/s00198-004-1611-8. [PubMed: 15185064].
  • 10. Lelovas PP, Xanthos TT, Thoma SE, Lyritis GP, Dontas IA. The laboratory rat as an animal model for osteoporosis research. Comp Med. 2008;58(5):424-30. [PubMed: 19004367]. [PubMed Central: PMC2707131].
  • 11. Turner RT, Maran A, Lotinun S, Hefferan T, Evans GL, Zhang M, et al. Animal models for osteoporosis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2001;2(1):117-27. doi: 10.1023/A:1010067326811. [PubMed: 11704974].
  • 12. Goulding A, Gold E. A new way to induce oestrogen-deficiency osteopaenia in the rat: comparison of the effects of surgical ovariectomy and administration of the LHRH agonist buserelin on bone resorption and composition. J Endocrinol. 1989;121(2):293-8. doi: 10.1677/joe.0.1210293. [PubMed: 2502594].
  • 13. Bagatell CJ, Conn PM, Bremner WJ. Single-dose administration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, Nal-Lys (antide) to healthy men. Fertil Steril. 1993;60(4):680-5. doi: 10.1016/S0015-0282(16)56222-0. [PubMed: 8405525].
  • 14. Bagatell CJ, Rivier JE, Bremner WJ. Dose effects of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, Nal-Glu, combined with testosterone enanthate on gonadotropin levels in normal men. Fertil Steril. 1995;64(1):139-45. [PubMed: 7789550].
  • 15. Klingmuller D, Schepke M, Enzweiler C, Bidlingmaier F. Hormonal responses to the new potent GnRH antagonist Cetrorelix. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1993;128(1):15-8. doi: 10.1530/acta.0.1280015. [PubMed: 8447189].
  • 16. Doehn C, Sommerauer M, Jocham D. Degarelix and its therapeutic potential in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clin Interv Aging. 2009;4:215-23. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S3503. [PubMed: 19503784]. [PubMed Central: PMC2685243].
  • 17. Broqua P, Riviere PJ, Conn PM, Rivier JE, Aubert ML, Junien JL. Pharmacological profile of a new, potent, and long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist: degarelix. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301(1):95-102. doi: 10.1124/jpet.301.1.95. [PubMed: 11907162].
  • 18. Van Poppel H. Evaluation of degarelix in the management of prostate cancer. Cancer Manag Res. 2010;2:39-52. doi: 10.2147/CMAR.S8841. [PubMed: 21188095]. [PubMed Central: PMC3004563].
  • 19. Khosla S. Update in male osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(1):3-10. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-1740. [PubMed: 20056806]. [PubMed Central: PMC2805483].
  • 20. Inada M, Matsumoto C, Miyaura C. [Animal models for bone and joint disease. Ovariectomized and orchidectomized animals]. Clin Calcium. 2011;21(2):164-70. [PubMed: 21289412].
  • 21. Goldray D, Weisman Y, Jaccard N, Merdler C, Chen J, Matzkin H. Decreased bone density in elderly men treated with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist decapeptyl (D-Trp6-GnRH). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;76(2):288-90. doi: 10.1210/jcem.76.2.7679397. [PubMed: 7679397].
  • 22. Hauschka PV, Lian JB, Cole DE, Gundberg CM. Osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein: vitamin K-dependent proteins in bone. Physiol Rev. 1989;69(3):990-1047. doi: 10.1152/physrev.1989.69.3.990. [PubMed: 2664828].
  • 23. Vanderschueren D, Van Herck E, Suiker AM, Visser WJ, Schot LP, Bouillon R. Bone and mineral metabolism in aged male rats: short and long term effects of androgen deficiency. Endocrinology. 1992;130(5):2906-16. doi: 10.1210/endo.130.5.1572302. [PubMed: 1572302].
  • 24. Grier SJ, Turner AS, Alvis MR. The use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in animals. Invest Radiol. 1996;31(1):50-62. doi: 10.1097/00004424-199601000-00008. [PubMed: 8850365].
  • 25. Gunness M, Orwoll E. Early induction of alterations in cancellous and cortical bone histology after orchiectomy in mature rats. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10(11):1735-44. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.5650101117. [PubMed: 8592951].
  • 26. Soelaiman IN, Ming W, Abu Bakar R, Hashnan NA, Mohd Ali H, Mohamed N, et al. Palm tocotrienol supplementation enhanced bone formation in oestrogen-deficient rats. Int J Endocrinol. 2012;2012:532862. doi: 10.1155/2012/532862. [PubMed: 23150728]. [PubMed Central: PMC3485551].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments