International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Published by: Kowsar

An Overview of Celiac Disease in Childhood Type 1 Diabetes

Iraj Shahramian 1 , Ali Bazi ORCID 2 , * and Alireza Sargazi 3
Authors Information
1 Pediatric Ward, Amir - Al - Momenin Hospital, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
2 Clinical Research Development Unit, Amir - Al - Momenin Hospital, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
3 Student Research Committee, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: July 2018, 16 (3); e66801
  • Published Online: June 27, 2018
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: February 11, 2018
  • Revised: June 9, 2018
  • Accepted: June 13, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijem.66801

To Cite: Shahramian I, Bazi A, Sargazi A. An Overview of Celiac Disease in Childhood Type 1 Diabetes, Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2018 ; 16(3):e66801. doi: 10.5812/ijem.66801.

Copyright © 2018, International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
  • 1. Shahramian I, Dehghani SM, Haghighat M, Noori NM, Teimouri AR, Sharafi E, et al. Serologic evaluation of celiac disease in patients with beta thalassemia major and control. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2015;8(2):153-9. [PubMed: 25926941]. [PubMed Central: PMC4403028].
  • 2. Kivling A, Nilsson L, Falth-Magnusson K, Sollvander S, Johanson C, Faresjo M. Diverse foxp3 expression in children with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1150:273-7. doi: 10.1196/annals.1447.018. [PubMed: 19120312].
  • 3. Cook L, Munier CML, Seddiki N, van Bockel D, Ontiveros N, Hardy MY, et al. Circulating gluten-specific FOXP3(+)CD39(+) regulatory T cells have impaired suppressive function in patients with celiac disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;140(6):1592-1603 e8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.02.015. [PubMed: 28283419].
  • 4. Uibo R, Panarina M, Teesalu K, Talja I, Sepp E, Utt M, et al. Celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes: a condition with distinct changes in intestinal immunity? Cell Mol Immunol. 2011;8(2):150-6. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2010.66. [PubMed: 21317917]. [PubMed Central: PMC4003136].
  • 5. Valle J, Morgado JMT, Ruiz-Martin J, Guardiola A, Lopes-Nogueras M, Garcia-Vela A, et al. Flow cytometry of duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytes improves diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases. United European Gastroenterol J. 2017;5(6):819-26. doi: 10.1177/2050640616682181. [PubMed: 29026596]. [PubMed Central: PMC5625870].
  • 6. Sonier B, Strom A, Wang GS, Patrick C, Crookshank JA, Mojibian M, et al. Antibodies from a patient with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease bind to macrophages that express the scavenger receptor CD163. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011;25(6):327-9. [PubMed: 21766094]. [PubMed Central: PMC3142606].
  • 7. Cohn A, Sofia AM, Kupfer SS. Type 1 diabetes and celiac disease: clinical overlap and new insights into disease pathogenesis. Curr Diab Rep. 2014;14(8):517. doi: 10.1007/s11892-014-0517-x. [PubMed: 24952108]. [PubMed Central: PMC4156157].
  • 8. Holmes GK. Screening for coeliac disease in type 1 diabetes. Arch Dis Child. 2002;87(6):495-8. [PubMed: 12456547]. [PubMed Central: PMC1755832].
  • 9. American Diabetes Association . 12. Children and Adolescents: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(Suppl 1):S126-36. doi: 10.2337/dc18-S012. [PubMed: 29222383].
  • 10. Couper JJ, Haller MJ, Ziegler AG, Knip M, Ludvigsson J, Craig ME, et al. ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014. Phases of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2014;15 Suppl 20:18-25. [PubMed: 25325095].
  • 11. Husby S, Koletzko S, Korponay-Szabo IR, Mearin ML, Phillips A, Shamir R, et al. European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines for the diagnosis of coeliac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;54(1):136-60. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e31821a23d0. [PubMed: 22197856].
  • 12. Hill ID, Dirks MH, Liptak GS, Colletti RB, Fasano A, Guandalini S, et al. Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease in children: recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;40(1):1-19. [PubMed: 15625418].
  • 13. Rubio-Tapia A, Ludvigsson JF, Brantner TL, Murray JA, Everhart JE. The prevalence of celiac disease in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(10):1538-44. quiz 1537, 1545. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.219. [PubMed: 22850429].
  • 14. Waisbourd-Zinman O, Hojsak I, Rosenbach Y, Mozer-Glassberg Y, Shalitin S, Phillip M, et al. Spontaneous normalization of anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody levels is common in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57(5):1314-20. doi: 10.1007/s10620-011-2016-0. [PubMed: 22173747].
  • 15. Ermarth A, Bryce M, Woodward S, Stoddard G, Book L, Jensen MK. Identification of Pediatric Patients With Celiac Disease Based on Serology and a Classification and Regression Tree Analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;15(3):396-402 e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2016.10.035. [PubMed: 27847281]. [PubMed Central: PMC5316297].
  • 16. Bannister EG, Cameron DJ, Ng J, Chow CW, Oliver MR, Alex G, et al. Can celiac serology alone be used as a marker of duodenal mucosal recovery in children with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet? Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109(9):1478-83. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2014.200. [PubMed: 25070050].
  • 17. Murch S, Jenkins H, Auth M, Bremner R, Butt A, France S, et al. Joint BSPGHAN and Coeliac UK guidelines for the diagnosis and management of coeliac disease in children. Arch Dis Child. 2013;98(10):806-11. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2013-303996. [PubMed: 23986560].
  • 18. Jora R, Raghuvanshi V, Payal V, Sharma P, Vishnoi SK. Correlation of Tissue Transglutaminase with Modified Marsh Grading in Celiac Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study. Indian J Pediatr. 2017;84(7):515-20. doi: 10.1007/s12098-017-2323-3. [PubMed: 28321610].
  • 19. Elitsur Y, Sigman T, Watkins R, Porto AF, Leonard Puppa EL, Foglio EJ, et al. Tissue Transglutaminase Levels Are Not Sufficient to Diagnose Celiac Disease in North American Practices Without Intestinal Biopsies. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62(1):175-9. doi: 10.1007/s10620-016-4354-4. [PubMed: 27778203].
  • 20. Agardh D, Nilsson A, Tuomi T, Lindberg B, Carlsson AK, Lernmark A, et al. Prediction of silent celiac disease at diagnosis of childhood type 1 diabetes by tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies and HLA. Pediatr Diabetes. 2001;2(2):58-65. doi: 10.1034/j.1399-5448.2001.002002058.x. [PubMed: 15016199].
  • 21. Arregui MV, Urmeneta JM, Brito HL, De Esteban JP, Martinez CP, Llenas LF, et al. The role of flow cytometry in celiac disease screening using human leukocyte antigen in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Ann Gastroenterol. 2017;30(2):179-85. doi: 10.20524/aog.2016.0113. [PubMed: 28243038]. [PubMed Central: PMC5320030].
  • 22. Dretzke J, Cummins C, Sandercock J, Fry-Smith A, Barrett T, Burls A. Autoantibody testing in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. Health Technol Assess. 2004;8(22):iii-xi. 1-183. [PubMed: 15191683].
  • 23. Picarelli A, Sabbatella L, Di Tola M, Vetrano S, Casale C, Anania MC, et al. Anti-endomysial antibody of IgG1 isotype detection strongly increases the prevalence of coeliac disease in patients affected by type I diabetes mellitus. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;142(1):111-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2005.02866.x. [PubMed: 16178863]. [PubMed Central: PMC1809494].
  • 24. Grodzinsky E, Falth-Magnusson K, Hogberg L, Jansson G, Laurin P, Stenhammar L. IgA endomysium antibodies--an early predictor for celiac disease in children without villous atrophy. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97(7):972-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00881.x. [PubMed: 18489624].
  • 25. Rodriguez-Juan C, Sala-Silveira L, Perez-Blas M, Valeri AP, Aguilera N, Lopez-Santalla M, et al. Increased levels of bovine serum albumin antibodies in patients with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease-related antibodies. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003;37(2):132-5. [PubMed: 12883297].
  • 26. Maki M, Huupponen T, Holm K, Hallstrom O. Seroconversion of reticulin autoantibodies predicts coeliac disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Gut. 1995;36(2):239-42. [PubMed: 7883223]. [PubMed Central: PMC1382410].
  • 27. Tanpowpong P, Broder-Fingert S, Katz AJ, Camargo CJ. Features of children with positive celiac serology and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Int. 2015;57(5):1028-30. doi: 10.1111/ped.12766. [PubMed: 26508189].
  • 28. Ludvigsson JF, Ludvigsson J, Ekbom A, Montgomery SM. Celiac disease and risk of subsequent type 1 diabetes: a general population cohort study of children and adolescents. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(11):2483-8. doi: 10.2337/dc06-0794. [PubMed: 17065689].
  • 29. Tye-Din JA, Cameron DJ, Daveson AJ, Day AS, Dellsperger P, Hogan C, et al. Appropriate clinical use of human leukocyte antigen typing for coeliac disease: an Australasian perspective. Intern Med J. 2015;45(4):441-50. doi: 10.1111/imj.12716. [PubMed: 25827511]. [PubMed Central: PMC4405087].
  • 30. Kaur A, Shimoni O, Wallach M. Celiac disease: from etiological factors to evolving diagnostic approaches. J Gastroenterol. 2017;52(9):1001-12. doi: 10.1007/s00535-017-1357-7. [PubMed: 28631048].
  • 31. Ciacci C, Zingone F. Dietary gluten and the development of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. Nutr Diet Suppl. 2016;8:51-6. doi: 10.2147/nds.s74713.
  • 32. Adlercreutz EH, Svensson J, Hansen D, Buschard K, Lernmark A, Mortensen HB, et al. Prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity in children with type 1 diabetes: regional variations across the Oresund strait between Denmark and southernmost Sweden. Pediatr Diabetes. 2015;16(7):504-9. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12200. [PubMed: 25131687].
  • 33. Lernmark A. Environmental factors in the etiology of type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, and narcolepsy. Pediatr Diabetes. 2016;17 Suppl 22:65-72. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12390. [PubMed: 27411439]. [PubMed Central: PMC5473290].
  • 34. Liu E, McDaniel K, Case S, Yu L, Gerhartz B, Ostermann N, et al. Exploring T cell reactivity to gliadin in young children with newly diagnosed celiac disease. Autoimmune Dis. 2014;2014:927190. doi: 10.1155/2014/927190. [PubMed: 24724018]. [PubMed Central: PMC3958769].
  • 35. Lundin KE, Scott H, Hansen T, Paulsen G, Halstensen TS, Fausa O, et al. Gliadin-specific, HLA-DQ(alpha 1*0501,beta 1*0201) restricted T cells isolated from the small intestinal mucosa of celiac disease patients. J Exp Med. 1993;178(1):187-96. [PubMed: 8315377]. [PubMed Central: PMC2191064].
  • 36. Diaz-Redondo A, Miranda-Bautista J, Garcia-Lledo J, Gisbert JP, Menchen L. The potential usefulness of human leukocyte antigen typing for celiac disease screening: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2015;107(7):423-9. [PubMed: 26140635].
  • 37. Weiss B, Pinhas-Hamiel O. Celiac Disease and Diabetes: When to Test and Treat. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64(2):175-9. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001388. [PubMed: 27574884].
  • 38. Hadithi M, von Blomberg BM, Crusius JB, Bloemena E, Kostense PJ, Meijer JW, et al. Accuracy of serologic tests and HLA-DQ typing for diagnosing celiac disease. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(5):294-302. [PubMed: 17785484].
  • 39. Fukunaga M, Ishimura N, Fukuyama C, Izumi D, Ishikawa N, Araki A, et al. Celiac disease in non-clinical populations of Japan. J Gastroenterol. 2018;53(2):208-14. doi: 10.1007/s00535-017-1339-9. [PubMed: 28389733].
  • 40. Dubois PC, Trynka G, Franke L, Hunt KA, Romanos J, Curtotti A, et al. Multiple common variants for celiac disease influencing immune gene expression. Nat Genet. 2010;42(4):295-302. doi: 10.1038/ng.543. [PubMed: 20190752]. [PubMed Central: PMC2847618].
  • 41. Smyth DJ, Plagnol V, Walker NM, Cooper JD, Downes K, Yang JH, et al. Shared and distinct genetic variants in type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(26):2767-77. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0807917. [PubMed: 19073967]. [PubMed Central: PMC2840835].
  • 42. Pontillo A, Brandao L, Guimaraes R, Segat L, Araujo J, Crovella S. Two SNPs in NLRP3 gene are involved in the predisposition to type-1 diabetes and celiac disease in a pediatric population from northeast Brazil. Autoimmunity. 2010;43(8):583-9. doi: 10.3109/08916930903540432. [PubMed: 20370570].
  • 43. Mysliwiec M, Mysliwska J, Zorena K, Balcerska A, Malinowska E, Wisniewski P. Interleukin 6 -174(G>C) gene polymorphism is related to celiac disease and autoimmune thyroiditis coincidence in diabetes type 1 children. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;82(1):108-12. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2008.07.004. [PubMed: 18692934].
  • 44. Akbulut UE, Cebi AH, Sag E, Ikbal M, Cakir M. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-17 gene polymorphism association with celiac disease in children. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2017;28(6):471-5. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2017.17092. [PubMed: 28928101].
  • 45. Dezsofi A, Szebeni B, Hermann CS, Kapitany A, Veres G, Sipka S, et al. Frequencies of genetic polymorphisms of TLR4 and CD14 and of HLA-DQ genotypes in children with celiac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, or both. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47(3):283-7. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e31816de885. [PubMed: 18728522].
  • 46. Catamo E, Segat L, Lenarduzzi S, Petix V, Morgutti M, Crovella S. CD14 polymorphisms correlate with an augmented risk for celiac disease in Italian patients. Genes Immun. 2012;13(6):489-95. doi: 10.1038/gene.2012.23. [PubMed: 22648004].
  • 47. Amundsen SS, Rundberg J, Adamovic S, Gudjonsdottir AH, Ascher H, Ek J, et al. Four novel coeliac disease regions replicated in an association study of a Swedish-Norwegian family cohort. Genes Immun. 2010;11(1):79-86. doi: 10.1038/gene.2009.67. [PubMed: 19693089].
  • 48. Romanos J, Barisani D, Trynka G, Zhernakova A, Bardella MT, Wijmenga C. Six new coeliac disease loci replicated in an Italian population confirm association with coeliac disease. J Med Genet. 2009;46(1):60-3. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2008.061457. [PubMed: 18805825].
  • 49. Guo CC, Wang M, Cao FD, Huang WH, Xiao D, Ye XG, et al. Meta-Analysis on Associations of RGS1 and IL12A Polymorphisms with Celiac Disease Risk. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(4):457. doi: 10.3390/ijms17040457. [PubMed: 27043536]. [PubMed Central: PMC4848913].
  • 50. Sbarouni E, Georgiadou P, Voudris V. Ischemia modified albumin changes - review and clinical implications. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49(2):177-84. doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2011.037. [PubMed: 21083441].
  • 51. Cichota LC, Moresco RN, Duarte MM, da Silva JE. Evaluation of ischemia-modified albumin in anemia associated to chronic kidney disease. J Clin Lab Anal. 2008;22(1):1-5. doi: 10.1002/jcla.20226. [PubMed: 18200583].
  • 52. Awadallah SM, Atoum MF, Nimer NA, Saleh SA. Ischemia modified albumin: an oxidative stress marker in beta-thalassemia major. Clin Chim Acta. 2012;413(9-10):907-10. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2012.01.037. [PubMed: 22336636].
  • 53. Yablecovitch D, Oren A, Ben-Horin S, Fudim E, Eliakim R, Saker T, et al. Soluble Syndecan-1: A Novel Biomarker of Small Bowel Mucosal Damage in Children with Celiac Disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62(3):755-60. doi: 10.1007/s10620-016-4415-8. [PubMed: 28025744].
  • 54. Yuksel M, Kaplan M, Ates I, Ozin YO, Kilic H, Kuzu UB, et al. The relation between ischemia modified albumin level and autoimmunity/chronic inflammation in celiac disease. Turkish J Biochem. 2017;42(3). doi: 10.1515/tjb-2016-0296.
  • 55. Sayar E, Ozdem S, Uzun G, Islek A, Yilmaz A, Artan R. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease. Turk J Pediatr. 2015;57(5):498-503. [PubMed: 27411418].
  • 56. Brusca I. Overview of Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Celiac Disease. Adv Clin Chem. 2015;68:1-55. doi: 10.1016/bs.acc.2014.12.006.
  • 57. Planas R, Pujol-Autonell I, Ruiz E, Montraveta M, Cabre E, Lucas-Martin A, et al. Regenerating gene Ialpha is a biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of celiac disease: a preliminary study. Transl Res. 2011;158(3):140-5. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2011.04.004. [PubMed: 21867979].
  • 58. Egerod KL, Engelstoft MS, Grunddal KV, Nohr MK, Secher A, Sakata I, et al. A major lineage of enteroendocrine cells coexpress CCK, secretin, GIP, GLP-1, PYY, and neurotensin but not somatostatin. Endocrinology. 2012;153(12):5782-95. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1595. [PubMed: 23064014].
  • 59. Zhao D, Pothoulakis C. Effects of NT on gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and role in intestinal inflammation. Peptides. 2006;27(10):2434-44. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2005.12.016. [PubMed: 16872719].
  • 60. Monten C, Torinsson Naluai A, Agardh D. Role of proneurotensin as marker of paediatric coeliac disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2016;186(3):387-92. doi: 10.1111/cei.12864. [PubMed: 27612962]. [PubMed Central: PMC5108069].
  • 61. Fasano A. Zonulin and its regulation of intestinal barrier function: the biological door to inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. Physiol Rev. 2011;91(1):151-75. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00003.2008. [PubMed: 21248165].
  • 62. Fasano A. Zonulin, regulation of tight junctions, and autoimmune diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1258:25-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06538.x. [PubMed: 22731712]. [PubMed Central: PMC3384703].
  • 63. Vorobjova T, Raikkerus H, Kadaja L, Talja I, Uibo O, Heilman K, et al. Circulating Zonulin Correlates with Density of Enteroviruses and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells in the Small Bowel Mucosa of Celiac Disease Patients. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62(2):358-71. doi: 10.1007/s10620-016-4403-z. [PubMed: 27995404].
  • 64. Tarnok A, Marosvolgyi T, Szabo E, Gyorei E, Decsi T. Low n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in newly diagnosed celiac disease in children with preexisting type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015;60(2):255-8. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000561. [PubMed: 25207475].
  • 65. Salardi S, Maltoni G, Zucchini S, Iafusco D, Zanfardino A, Confetto S, et al. Whole lipid profile and not only HDL cholesterol is impaired in children with coexisting type 1 diabetes and untreated celiac disease. Acta Diabetol. 2017;54(10):889-94. doi: 10.1007/s00592-017-1019-5. [PubMed: 28639064].
  • 66. Simmons KM, McFann K, Taki I, Liu E, Klingensmith GJ, Rewers MJ, et al. Reduced Bone Mineral Density Is Associated with Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. J Pediatr. 2016;169:44-8 e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.10.024. [PubMed: 26561381]. [PubMed Central: PMC4849876].
  • 67. Bakker SF, Tushuizen ME, von Blomberg BM, Bontkes HJ, Mulder CJ, Simsek S. Screening for coeliac disease in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: myths, facts and controversy. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2016;8:51. doi: 10.1186/s13098-016-0166-0. [PubMed: 27478507]. [PubMed Central: PMC4966870].
  • 68. Mollazadegan K, Fored M, Lundberg S, Ludvigsson J, Ekbom A, Montgomery SM, et al. Risk of renal disease in patients with both type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. Diabetologia. 2014;57(7):1339-45. doi: 10.1007/s00125-014-3223-y. [PubMed: 24663809].
  • 69. Topal E, Catal F, Yildirim Acar N, Ermistekin H, Sinanoglu MS, Karabiber H, et al. Vitamin and mineral deficiency in children newly diagnosed with celiac disease. Turkish J Med Sci. 2015;45:833-6. doi: 10.3906/sag-1408-94.
  • 70. Real A, Gilbert N, Hauser B, Kennedy N, Shand A, Gillett H, et al. Characterisation of osteoprotegerin autoantibodies in coeliac disease. Calcif Tissue Int. 2015;97(2):125-33. doi: 10.1007/s00223-015-0023-4. [PubMed: 26092508].
  • 71. Naderi M, Shahramian I, Delaramnasab M, Bazi A. Coincidence of celiac disease with nongastrointestinal tumors in children. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2017;34(8):478-82. doi: 10.1080/08880018.2017.1404171. [PubMed: 29219666].
  • 72. Nunes-Silva JG, Nunes VS, Schwartz RP, Mlss Trecco S, Evazian D, Correa-Giannella ML, et al. Impact of type 1 diabetes mellitus and celiac disease on nutrition and quality of life. Nutr Diabetes. 2017;7(1). e239. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2016.43. [PubMed: 28067892]. [PubMed Central: PMC5301040].
  • 73. Pham-Short A, Donaghue KC, Ambler G, Chan AK, Hing S, Cusumano J, et al. Early elevation of albumin excretion rate is associated with poor gluten-free diet adherence in young people with coeliac disease and diabetes. Diabet Med. 2014;31(2):208-12. doi: 10.1111/dme.12329. [PubMed: 24117620].
  • 74. Reilly NR, Lebwohl B, Mollazadegan K, Michaelsson K, Green PH, Ludvigsson JF. Celiac Disease Does Not Influence Fracture Risk in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. J Pediatr. 2016;169:49-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.10.032. [PubMed: 26589343]. [PubMed Central: PMC4729630].
  • 75. Mackinder M, Allison G, Svolos V, Buchanan E, Johnston A, Cardigan T, et al. Nutritional status, growth and disease management in children with single and dual diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:99. doi: 10.1186/1471-230X-14-99. [PubMed: 24885742]. [PubMed Central: PMC4046848].
  • 76. Leeds JS, Hopper AD, Hadjivassiliou M, Tesfaye S, Sanders DS. Potential coeliac disease in Type 1 diabetes mellitus: does a positive antibody lead to increased complications? Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;24(4):378-83. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2013.09.005. [PubMed: 24393392].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments