International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Published by: Kowsar

Effects of Daily Consumption of Cashews on Oxidative Stress and Atherogenic Indices in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled-Feeding Trial

Reihaneh Darvish Damavandi 1 , Seyedeh Neda Mousavi 2 , Farzad Shidfar 1 , * , Vida Mohammadi 3 , Asadollah Rajab 4 , Sharieh Hosseini 5 and Javad Heshmati 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
3 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Iranian Diabetes Society, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: 17 (1); e70744
  • Published Online: January 23, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: April 28, 2018
  • Revised: December 22, 2018
  • Accepted: January 5, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijem.70744

To Cite: Darvish Damavandi R, Mousavi S N, Shidfar F, Mohammadi V, Rajab A , et al. Effects of Daily Consumption of Cashews on Oxidative Stress and Atherogenic Indices in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled-Feeding Trial, Int J Endocrinol Metab. Online ahead of Print ; 17(1):e70744. doi: 10.5812/ijem.70744.

Copyright © 2019, International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Pitsavos C, Tampourlou M, Panagiotakos DB, Skoumas Y, Chrysohoou C, Nomikos T, et al. Association between low-grade systemic inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus among men and women from the ATTICA study. Rev Diabet Stud. 2007;4(2):98-104. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2007.4.98. [PubMed: 17823694]. [PubMed Central: PMC2036265].
  • 2. Luo C, Zhang Y, Ding Y, Shan Z, Chen S, Yu M, et al. Nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(1):256-69. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.076109. [PubMed: 24847854].
  • 3. Sabate J, Oda K, Ros E. Nut consumption and blood lipid levels: A pooled analysis of 25 intervention trials. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(9):821-7. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.79. [PubMed: 20458092].
  • 4. Jiang R, Jacobs DR Jr, Mayer-Davis E, Szklo M, Herrington D, Jenny NS, et al. Nut and seed consumption and inflammatory markers in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163(3):222-31. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwj033. [PubMed: 16357111].
  • 5. Wien MA, Sabate JM, Ikle DN, Cole SE, Kandeel FR. Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(11):1365-72. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802411. [PubMed: 14574348].
  • 6. Mukuddem-Petersen J, Stonehouse Oosthuizen W, Jerling JC, Hanekom SM, White Z. Effects of a high walnut and high cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome: A controlled feeding trial. Br J Nutr. 2007;97(6):1144-53. doi: 10.1017/S0007114507682944. [PubMed: 17381974].
  • 7. Mah E, Schulz JA, Kaden VN, Lawless AL, Rotor J, Mantilla LB, et al. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: A randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105(5):1070-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.150037. [PubMed: 28356271].
  • 8. Davis L, Stonehouse W, Loots du T, Mukuddem-Petersen J, van der Westhuizen FH, Hanekom SM, et al. The effects of high walnut and cashew nut diets on the antioxidant status of subjects with metabolic syndrome. Eur J Nutr. 2007;46(3):155-64. doi: 10.1007/s00394-007-0647-x. [PubMed: 17377830].
  • 9. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol. 1999;299:15-27. [PubMed: 9916193].
  • 10. Yildiz A, Gur M, Yilmaz R, Demirbag R, Polat M, Selek S, et al. Association of paraoxonase activity and coronary blood flow. Atherosclerosis. 2008;197(1):257-63. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.04.004. [PubMed: 17537444].
  • 11. Kocyigit A, Koylu AA, Keles H. Effects of pistachio nuts consumption on plasma lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy volunteers. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006;16(3):202-9. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2005.08.004. [PubMed: 16580587].
  • 12. Gebauer SK, West SG, Kay CD, Alaupovic P, Bagshaw D, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of pistachios on cardiovascular disease risk factors and potential mechanisms of action: A dose-response study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(3):651-9. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/88.3.651. [PubMed: 18779280].
  • 13. Lovejoy JC, Most MM, Lefevre M, Greenway FL, Rood JC. Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(5):1000-6. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/76.5.1000. [PubMed: 12399271].
  • 14. Tapsell LC, Gillen LJ, Patch CS, Batterham M, Owen A, Bare M, et al. Including walnuts in a low-fat/modified-fat diet improves HDL cholesterol-to-total cholesterol ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(12):2777-83. [PubMed: 15562184].
  • 15. Li SC, Liu YH, Liu JF, Chang WH, Chen CM, Chen CY. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2011;60(4):474-9. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2010.04.009. [PubMed: 20580779].
  • 16. Estruch R, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Corella D, Salas-Salvado J, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Covas MI, et al. Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145(1):1-11. [PubMed: 16818923].
  • 17. Casas-Agustench P, Lopez-Uriarte P, Bullo M, Ros E, Cabre-Vila JJ, Salas-Salvado J. Effects of one serving of mixed nuts on serum lipids, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21(2):126-35. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2009.08.005. [PubMed: 20031380].
  • 18. Kim Y, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Benefits of nut consumption on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors: Multiple potential mechanisms of actions. Nutrients. 2017;9(11). doi: 10.3390/nu9111271. [PubMed: 29165404]. [PubMed Central: PMC5707743].
  • 19. Imamura F, Micha R, Wu JH, de Oliveira Otto MC, Otite FO, Abioye AI, et al. Effects of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate on glucose-insulin homeostasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled feeding trials. PLoS Med. 2016;13(7). e1002087. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002087. [PubMed: 27434027]. [PubMed Central: PMC4951141].
  • 20. Guasch-Ferre M, Li J, Hu FB, Salas-Salvado J, Tobias DK. Effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors: An updated meta-analysis and systematic review of controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;108(1):174-87. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy091. [PubMed: 29931130].
  • 21. Askari G, Yazdekhasti N, Mohammadifard N, Sarrafzadegan N, Bahonar A, Badiei M, et al. The relationship between nut consumption and lipid profile among the Iranian adult population; Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67(4):385-9. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.21. [PubMed: 23422923].
  • 22. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Josse AR, Nguyen TH, Faulkner DA, et al. Almonds reduce biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in older hyperlipidemic subjects. J Nutr. 2008;138(5):908-13. doi: 10.1093/jn/138.5.908. [PubMed: 18424600].
  • 23. Canales A, Benedi J, Nus M, Librelotto J, Sanchez-Montero JM, Sanchez-Muniz FJ. Effect of walnut-enriched restructured meat in the antioxidant status of overweight/obese senior subjects with at least one extra CHD-risk factor. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26(3):225-32. [PubMed: 17634167].
  • 24. Haddad E, Jambazian P, Karunia M, Tanzman J, Sabaté J. A pecan-enriched diet increases γ-tocopherol/cholesterol and decreases thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma of adults. Nutr Res. 2006;26(8):397-402. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2006.06.022.
  • 25. Bolling BW, Chen CY, McKay DL, Blumberg JB. Tree nut phytochemicals: Composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts. Nutr Res Rev. 2011;24(2):244-75. doi: 10.1017/S095442241100014X. [PubMed: 22153059].
  • 26. Ros E. Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients. 2010;2(7):652-82. doi: 10.3390/nu2070683. [PubMed: 22254047]. [PubMed Central: PMC3257681].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments