International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Published by: Kowsar

The Principles of Biomedical Scientific Writing: Materials and Methods

Asghar Ghasemi 1 , Zahra Bahadoran 2 , Azita Zadeh-Vakili 3 , Seyed Ali Montazeri 4 and Farhad Hosseinpanah 4 , *
Authors Information
1 Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: January 31, 2019, 17 (1); e88155
  • Published Online: January 28, 2019
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: December 23, 2018
  • Revised: January 5, 2019
  • Accepted: January 19, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijem.88155

To Cite: Ghasemi A, Bahadoran Z, Zadeh-Vakili A , Montazeri S A, Hosseinpanah F. The Principles of Biomedical Scientific Writing: Materials and Methods, Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2019 ; 17(1):e88155. doi: 10.5812/ijem.88155.

Abstract
Copyright © 2019, International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Functions of the Materials and Methods Section
3. Components of the Materials and Methods
4. General Considerations for Materials and Methods Section
5. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
  • 1. Plaxco KW. The art of writing science. Protein Sci. 2010;19(12):2261-6. doi: 10.1002/pro.514. [PubMed: 20954234]. [PubMed Central: PMC3009394].
  • 2. Liumbruno GM, Velati C, Pasqualetti P, Franchini M. How to write a scientific manuscript for publication. Blood Transfus. 2013;11(2):217-26. doi: 10.2450/2012.0247-12. [PubMed: 23356975]. [PubMed Central: PMC3626472].
  • 3. Marta MM. A brief history of the evolution of the medical research article. Clujul Med. 2015;88(4):567-70. doi: 10.15386/cjmed-560. [PubMed: 26733758]. [PubMed Central: PMC4689254].
  • 4. Annesley TM. Who, what, when, where, how, and why: The ingredients in the recipe for a successful Methods section. Clin Chem. 2010;56(6):897-901. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2010.146589. [PubMed: 20378765].
  • 5. Erdemir F. How to write a materials and methods section of a scientific article? Turk J Urol. 2013;39(Suppl 1):10-5. doi: 10.5152/tud.2013.047. [PubMed: 26328129]. [PubMed Central: PMC4548564].
  • 6. Wonsyld P. Academic writing for graduate students. 2014. Available from: https://cip.ku.dk/english/course_catalogue/for_students/academic_writing-_ma/.
  • 7. Stroup DF, Smith CK, Truman BI. Reporting the methods used in public health research and practice. J Public Health Emerg. 2017;1. doi: 10.21037/jphe.2017.12.01. [PubMed: 29417955]. [PubMed Central: PMC5798489].
  • 8. Kotz D, Cals JW. Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part IV: Methods. J Clin Epidemiol. 2013;66(8):817. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.01.003. [PubMed: 23434330].
  • 9. Gustavii B. Method. In: Gustavii B, editor. How to write and illustrate a scientific paper. Cambridge University Press; 2007.
  • 10. Azevedo LF, Canario-Almeida F, Almeida Fonseca J, Costa-Pereira A, Winck JC, Hespanhol V. How to write a scientific paper--writing the methods section. Rev Port Pneumol. 2011;17(5):232-8. doi: 10.1016/j.rppneu.2011.06.014. [PubMed: 21821389].
  • 11. Wallwork A. Methods. In: Wallwork A, editor. English for writing research papers. Springer; 2016. p. 277-93. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-26094-5_16.
  • 12. Bahadoran Z, Jeddi S, Mirmiran P, Ghasemi A. The principles of biomedical scientific writing: Introduction. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2018;16(4). e84795. doi: 10.5812/ijem.84795. [PubMed: 30464776]. [PubMed Central: PMC6218661].
  • 13. Thrower PA. Writing a scientific paper: III. Experimental. Carbon. 2008;46(8):1113-4. doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2008.04.001.
  • 14. Zeiger M. Materials and methods. In: Zeiger M, editor. Essentials of writing biomedical research papers. McGraw-Hill; 2000. p. 107-27.
  • 15. Kallet RH. How to write the methods section of a research paper. Respir Care. 2004;49(10):1229-32. [PubMed: 15447808].
  • 16. Körner AM. Materials and methods. In: Körner AM, editor. Guide to publishing a scientific paper. Routledge; 2008. p. 46-51.
  • 17. Gastel B, Day RA. How to write the materials and methods section. In: Gastel B, Day RA, editors. How to write and publish a scientific paper. ABC-CLIO; 2016. p. 66-71.
  • 18. Kimberlin CL, Winterstein AG. Validity and reliability of measurement instruments used in research. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65(23):2276-84. doi: 10.2146/ajhp070364. [PubMed: 19020196].
  • 19. Araujo CG. Detailing the writing of scientific manuscripts: 25-30 paragraphs. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2014;102(2):e21-3. [PubMed: 24676380]. [PubMed Central: PMC3987331].
  • 20. von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gotzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP, et al. The strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008;61(4):344-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2007.11.008. [PubMed: 18313558].
  • 21. Vandenbroucke JP, von Elm E, Altman DG, Gotzsche PC, Mulrow CD, Pocock SJ, et al. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med. 2007;4(10). e297. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040297. [PubMed: 17941715]. [PubMed Central: PMC2020496].
  • 22. Gallo V, Egger M, McCormack V, Farmer PB, Ioannidis JP, Kirsch-Volders M, et al. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology-molecular epidemiology (STROBE-ME): An extension of the STROBE statement. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26(10):797-810. doi: 10.1007/s10654-011-9622-1. [PubMed: 22037796].
  • 23. Martinez-Mesa J, Gonzalez-Chica DA, Duquia RP, Bonamigo RR, Bastos JL. Sampling: How to select participants in my research study? An Bras Dermatol. 2016;91(3):326-30. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20165254. [PubMed: 27438200]. [PubMed Central: PMC4938277].
  • 24. Ng KH, Peh WC. Preparing effective illustrations. Part 1: Graphs. Singapore Med J. 2009;50(3):245-9. [PubMed: 19352565].
  • 25. Yip C, Han N-LR, Sng BL. Legal and ethical issues in research. Indian J Anaesth. 2016;60(9):684-8. doi: 10.4103/0019-5049.190627. [PubMed: 27729698]. [PubMed Central: PMC5037952].
  • 26. General Assembly of the World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. J Am Coll Dent. 2014;81(3):14-8. [PubMed: 25951678].
  • 27. The World Medical Association Inc. WMA Declaration of Helsinki – ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. 2008.
  • 28. Aslam A, Imanullah S, Asim M, El-Menyar A. Registration of clinical trials: Is it really needed? N Am J Med Sci. 2013;5(12):713-5. doi: 10.4103/1947-2714.123266. [PubMed: 24404555]. [PubMed Central: PMC3877534].
  • 29. Wicherts JM, Scott A, Rucklidge JJ, Mulder RT. Is mandatory prospective trial registration working to prevent publication of unregistered trials and selective outcome reporting? An observational study of five psychiatry journals that mandate prospective clinical trial registration. Plos One. 2015;10(8). e0133718. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133718.
  • 30. Bhaskar SB. Clinical trial registration: A practical perspective. Indian J Anaesth. 2018;62(1):10-5. doi: 10.4103/ija.IJA_761_17. [PubMed: 29416145]. [PubMed Central: PMC5787884].
  • 31. How to register your study: U.S National Library of Medicine. 2018, [cited Januery]. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/manage-recs/how-register.
  • 32. Borovecki A, Mlinaric A, Horvat M, Supak Smolcic V. Informed consent and ethics committee approval in laboratory medicine. Biochem Med (Zagreb). 2018;28(3):30201. doi: 10.11613/BM.2018.030201. [PubMed: 30429665]. [PubMed Central: PMC6214688].
  • 33. Grady C. The challenge of assuring continued post-trial access to beneficial treatment. Yale J Health Policy Law Ethics. 2005;5(1):425-35. [PubMed: 15742586].
  • 34. Zong Z. Should post-trial provision of beneficial experimental interventions be mandatory in developing countries? J Med Ethics. 2008;34(3):188-92. doi: 10.1136/jme.2006.018754. [PubMed: 18316461].
  • 35. Cocanour CS. Informed consent-It's more than a signature on a piece of paper. Am J Surg. 2017;214(6):993-7. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2017.09.015. [PubMed: 28974311].
  • 36. Roth-Cline M, Nelson RM. Parental permission and child assent in research on children. Yale J Biol Med. 2013;86(3):291-301. [PubMed: 24058304]. [PubMed Central: PMC3767214].
  • 37. Knight KL. Study/experimental/research design: Much more than statistics. J Athl Train. 2010;45(1):98-100. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-45.1.98. [PubMed: 20064054]. [PubMed Central: PMC2808761].
  • 38. Noordzij M, Dekker FW, Zoccali C, Jager KJ. Study designs in clinical research. Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;113(3):c218-21. doi: 10.1159/000235610. [PubMed: 19690439].
  • 39. Thiese MS. Observational and interventional study design types; An overview. Biochem Med (Zagreb). 2014;24(2):199-210. doi: 10.11613/BM.2014.022. [PubMed: 24969913]. [PubMed Central: PMC4083571].
  • 40. Ernster VL. Nested case-control studies. Prev Med. 1994;23(5):587-90. doi: 10.1006/pmed.1994.1093. [PubMed: 7845919].
  • 41. Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D, Consort Group . CONSORT 2010 statement: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Int J Surg. 2011;9(8):672-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2011.09.004. [PubMed: 22019563].
  • 42. den Dunnen JT, Dalgleish R, Maglott DR, Hart RK, Greenblatt MS, McGowan-Jordan J, et al. HGVS Recommendations for the Description of Sequence Variants: 2016 Update. Hum Mutat. 2016;37(6):564-9. doi: 10.1002/humu.22981. [PubMed: 26931183].
  • 43. Little J, Higgins JP, Ioannidis JP, Moher D, Gagnon F, von Elm E, et al. Strengthening the reporting of genetic association studies (STREGA)--An extension of the STROBE statement. Eur J Clin Invest. 2009;39(4):247-66. [PubMed: 19297801]. [PubMed Central: PMC2730482].
  • 44. Swales JM, Feak CB. Academic writing for graduate students: Essential tasks and skills. 1. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press; 2004.
  • 45. Hall PA. Getting your paper published: An editor's perspective. Ann Saudi Med. 2011;31(1):72-6. doi: 10.4103/0256-4947.75782. [PubMed: 21245603]. [PubMed Central: PMC3101729].
  • 46. Bustin SA, Benes V, Garson JA, Hellemans J, Huggett J, Kubista M, et al. The MIQE guidelines: minimum information for publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments. Clin Chem. 2009;55(4):611-22. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2008.112797. [PubMed: 19246619].
  • 47. Lang TA, Altman DG. Basic statistical reporting for articles published in biomedical journals: The "statistical analyses and methods in the published literature" or the SAMPL Guidelines. Int J Nurs Stud. 2015;52(1):5-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.09.006. [PubMed: 25441757].
  • 48. Sarter M, Fritschy JM. Reporting statistical methods and statistical results in EJN. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28(12):2363-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06581.x. [PubMed: 19087166].
  • 49. Altman DG. Statistical reviewing for medical journals. Stat Med. 1998;17(23):2661-74. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0258(19981215)17:23<2661::aid-sim33>3.0.co;2-b.
  • 50. Fernandes-Taylor S, Hyun JK, Reeder RN, Harris AH. Common statistical and research design problems in manuscripts submitted to high-impact medical journals. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4:304. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-304. [PubMed: 21854631]. [PubMed Central: PMC3224575].
  • 51. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. JAMA. 1997;277(11):927-34. [PubMed: 9062335].
  • 52. Kliewer MA. Writing it up: A step-by-step guide to publication for beginning investigators. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;185(3):591-6. doi: 10.2214/ajr.185.3.01850591. [PubMed: 16120904].
  • 53. Riordan L. Modern-day considerations for references in scientific writing. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2012;112(8):567-9. [PubMed: 22904255].
  • 54. Egger M, Juni P, Bartlett C, Consort Group . Value of flow diagrams in reports of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2001;285(15):1996-9. [PubMed: 11308437].
  • 55. Foote M. Materials and methods: A recipe for success. Chest. 2008;133(1):291-3. doi: 10.1378/chest.07-2382. [PubMed: 18187756].
  • 56. The value of the passive voice. 2015. Available from: http://www.biomedicaleditor.com/passive-voice.html.
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments